Glass Bottle Marks – 3


    Note to readers: for introductory and explanatory comments and discussion concerning this GLASS MANUFACTURERS MARKS section of my website, please click on the “A-B” link below which points to “Page One” of these five alphabetically-arranged pages. Thank you very much!!


      [ A – B ]       [ C – D ]      [ E – L ]       [ M – R ]       [ S – Z ]

      • E ……………………. Unidentified, but on some early (handmade) bottles, this letter could possibly stand for any of a number of early glass bottle companies, including Ellenville Glass Works of  Ellenville, New York, as well as several Pittsburgh firms such as T.A.Evans & Company (c.1860-1869), Enterprise Glass Company (1st of that name, c. 1871-1873) and Eclipse Glass Works (c.1876).   Another possibility would be Edward H. Everett & Co. of Newark, Ohio. (See “E.H.E.Co” and “N next to (or within) a star” marks).  Sometimes the letter might be just a mold identifier or “shop letter”, as seen on the bottom of some beer bottles.
      • E (four rectangular strokes, stylized “E” which may actually be intended as an abstract “M”;  seen on bottles primarily from the 1970s).  See “Abstract M” logo” on page four where a photo of this mark is shown.  This may be interpreted as a capital “E” with a space between the one vertical stroke, and the three horizontal strokes………….. Midland Glass Company.
      • E4 (on milk bottles)…………..Essex Glass Company, Mt. Vernon, Ohio (c.1906-1920).
      • Ekco……………………Ekco Housewares, Chicago, Illinois. Maker of all types of kitchen-related cookware and accessories. Brand name occasionally seen marked on glass cookware, measuring pitchers, coffee carafes, etc. Most of these pieces date anywhere from the 1950s to the present. I’m not positive what glass manufacturer produced these items. I would hazard a guess (repeat: guess!) that some items were made by Hazel-Atlas Glass Company,  Anchor Hocking Corporation, Indiana Glass Company, Federal Glass and/or Corning Glass.
      • E.F.B.CO…………….Elk Flint Bottle Company, Shinglehouse, PA (1904-1919). Info on dates of operation from .
      • EG (along lower heel of bottle, embedded with a brief series of numbers)………..Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana (see Graham). Usually found within a string of letters/numbers, often in conjunction with “G23” or “G26”, or similar numbering). These markings are often seen on light green glass soda bottles of the 1920s.
      • E.H.E……………….Edward H. Everett (1880-1885). This was the second owner/operator of the Newark Star Glass Works. Officially incorporated as “Edward H. Everett Company” in 1885 (also called “Edward H. Everett Glass Works”).  The “E H E” mark may have been used after 1885, concurrently with the E. H. E. CO. mark.  Please see next entry, as well as “N next to (or within) a star“.
      • E.H.E.CO…………..Edward H. Everett Company (operating company of the Newark Star Glass Works), Newark, Ohio (1885-1904). Plant merged in 1904 to become part of the Ohio Bottle Company and in 1905 Ohio Bottle became part of the American Bottle Company. American was purchased by Owens Bottle Company in 1916, and in 1929 this plant became part of the merger that resulted in the formation of Owens-Illinois Glass Company. Also, see “S. K. & CO” and “N next to or within a star” marks.
      • Ellenville Glass Works………Ellenville Glass Works, Ellenville, New York (1837-1896)
      • E.O. Brody Co, Cleveland O. U.S.A…………..see more info on this page. 
      • EP (along lower heel of bottle, preceded and followed by various numbers)………..Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana. See Graham.  Usually found on pale green glass soda bottles of the 1920s period.
      • E. P. JR. & CO. …………..E. Packham Jr. & Company, Baltimore, Maryland (c. late 1890s-1900s?)
      • ES (along lower heel of soda bottles, preceded and followed by various numbers)…………..Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana. See Graham.
      • E. S. & Co……….Evans, Sell & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1873-1877)
      • E.S.& H. ………Ely Sons & Hoyt, Clyde, NY (Proprietors of the Clyde Glass Works during part of the time it operated, this mark was apparently used sometime in the 1880s and/or 1890s).
      • E. Son & H. …………Ely Sons [or Son] & Hoyt, Clyde, New York. See above entry, as well as “Clyde”.
      • Everett……………Edward H. Everett Co. (Newark Star Glass Works), Newark, Ohio (c.1881-1904).  See “E.H.E.CO.” and “N next to (or within) a star” entries.
      • E. W. & CO………E. Wormser & Company, Pittsburgh, PA (c.1854-1875). Later known as Wormser Glass Company (1875-c.1927).
      • Exax……………………………Owens-Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, OH (Kimble Glass Company, division of O-I). Trademark used for borosilicate glass formula, used for laboratory glassware, chemical bottles, etc. circa 1950s.
      • Eye (Cat’s Eye)…………….occasionally the “diamond/o/i” mark used by Owens-Illinois Glass Company has been loosely described as an eye or the planet Saturn. Please see this page  for a variety of examples of this mark.
      • F…………………Fairmount Glass Works/Company, Fairmount, IN (1889-1906) & Indianapolis, IN (c.1906-1968). See the Fairmount Glass page.

        F in Hexagon - Fairmount Glass Company

        F in a hexagon (Fairmount Glass Company)

      • F in a hexagon (shown)………………..Fairmount Glass Works/Company, Fairmount, Indiana (1889-1906) & Indianapolis, Indiana (c.1906-1968).  For more info on the marks used by this company, please see this page: Fairmount Glass Company.
      • F in a keystone……….C.L.Flaccus Glass Company, Pittsburgh, PA (1879-1928). General offices in Pittsburgh, actual factory locations included Tarentum, Leechburg, and Beaver Falls, PA. Period of usage of this mark is uncertain. See “C.L.F.” and related marks.
      • F in a vertical oval, in cursive script……..Fenton Art Glass Company, Williamstown, West Virginia (1905-2011). Mark first used in 1983, seen on brightly colored handmade upscale glassware.
      • F superimposed over a G……….. see “F G” mark (Florida Glass Manufacturing Company, Jacksonville, FL).

        "F in a shield" logo - Federal Glass Company, Columbus, Ohio.

        “F in a shield” logo – Federal Glass Company, Columbus, Ohio.

      • F within a shield/crest  (shown) ………………….Federal Glass Company, Columbus, Ohio (1900-1980).  This logo was first used in 1932, according to the trademark records, and was in use up until about 1958. Federal was the manufacturer of a huge variety of tableware, tumblers, shotglasses, packer jars,  toothpick holders, etc. Especially known for their lines of “Depression Glass tableware so popular during the 1930s and 1940s, most of which was not marked.
      • F & A………….Fahnestock, Albree & Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1860-c.1872).
      • F. A. & CO……….Fahnestock, Albree & Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1860-c.1872).
      • Fahnstock, Albree & Co. Pitts. PA………….Fahnstock, Albree & Company, Pittsburgh, PA. See entry above.
      • Faroy U.S.A………………..see FAROY glass.
      • F.B.CO…………….Findlay Bottle Company, Findlay, Ohio (1888-1893) . Most commonly seen on the bottom of aqua “wax sealer” style fruit jars.
      • F. B. & F. J. CO……Fairmont Bottle & Fruit Jar Company, Fairmont, West Virginia (1892-1893).  This company was dissolved in 1893, and a few months later a new company (located at the same factory site) was organized under the name of “Johns Bros”. See J.Bros. mark.
      • F.C.C.CO…………..mis-reading of “F.C.G.CO.”, below. The “G” is often embossed to appear more like a “C”.
      • F.C.G…………………see “F G C” entry.
      • F.C.G.C……………Falls City Glass Company, Louisville, Kentucky (1884-1892)
      • F.C.G.CO…………..Falls City Glass Company, Louisville, Kentucky (1884-1892).
      • F C W………………. misreading of mark used by Fairmount Glass Works (see F. G. W. entry).  Often the mark has a much larger “G” in the middle which does look like a “C”.

        F.D.A. on base of cone ink. (Photo courtesy Jim Sinsley)

        F.D.A. on base of cone ink. (Photo courtesy Jim Sinsley)

      • F.D.A. ……………… Unknown. Seen on the base of a crudely hand-blown aqua cone ink bottle, perhaps 1870s-1880s vintage.
      • “Federal Law Forbids Sale or Reuse of This Bottle”………..phrase commonly seen on liquor bottles. For more information, please click here.

        Fenton in an oval (as seen on the base of a ruby red amberina hobnail swing vase)

        Fenton in an oval logo, used by Fenton Art Glass Company 1970-2011.

      • Fenton within an oval (shown, right)…………….Fenton Art Glass Company, Williamstown, West Virginia (1905-2011).  This particular mark used since 1970.   Fenton has produced large quantities of handmade novelty, decorative and art glassware of every description in many, many colors. For more information, see my webpage on Fenton Art Glass Company.
      • F.E.R……………..F.E.Reed Glass Company (Reed Glass Company), Rochester, New York (1899-1956). Mark used from c.1899-1927. For more detailed company chronology, see under “Rochester Glass Wks” entry. Also see next entry.
      • F.E.R.G.CO…………F.E.Reed Glass Company (Reed Glass Company), Rochester, New York (1899-1956). This and the above mark probably dates from the earlier years, c. 1899-1927. See “Rochester Glass Wks” entry for other marks used by this firm.
        Foster-Forbes Glass Company logo - Cursive FF inside circle.

        Foster-Forbes Glass Company logo – Cursive FF inside circle.

        Foster-Forbes emerald green soda bottle base-1990 date code.

        “FF inside a circle” mark on the base of a Foster-Forbes emerald green soda bottle – 1990 date code. For a pic of the entire bottle, click here. 

      • FF (cursive script, letters joined, within a circle)……..Foster-Forbes Glass Company, Marion, Indiana and (later) several other plant locations. (1929-c. 2000).  This particular mark was first used on their bottles in 1942. As far as I understand, all of the former Foster-Forbes glass plants are now either shut down, or are part of the Ardagh Group (formerly owned by Saint Gobain, later Verallia).  Saint-Gobain Containers products usually have an “SG” on the heel or bottom (See my page on the “SG” mark here ).   For an earlier mark, see entry under “Z”:  (Backward Z with a slash through the center). For more background material on Foster and related glass companies, check out this web article by Bill Lockhart et al:
      • F. F .& Co……………………Fox, Fultz & Company, Boston, Massachussetts (c. 1894-1911+).  (Date range info courtesy of Taylor McBurney).
      • F. F. & W…………Fox, Fultz & Webster, Boston, Massachusetts (c. 1885 or earlier-c.1893).   This mark was first reported to me (courtesy of Mark Newton) as seen on the base of a colorless druggist bottle from Greenville, NH, probably made circa 1885. Another web correspondent (Shawn) supplied the full name of that business as the virtually certain source of the mark.  Taylor McBurney supplied approximate date range from info found in city directories.
      • F G ………………. Florida Glass Manufacturing Company, Jacksonville, Florida (1926-1947).  Julian Toulouse (Bottle Makers and their Marks, 1971, page 199) indicates this mark dates from “circa 1930”. Another minor variation is also pictured: F and G entwined (superimposed over each other) which he writes as dating “circa 1940”. According to Toulouse, Florida Glass Manufacturing Company was purchased by Chattanooga Glass Company in 1947 (See “C in a circle” mark) , then leased by Ball for a year, and subsequently sold to Scalise in 1950 who changed the name of the concern to “Tropical Glass & Box Company” in about 1952.
      • F G C……………………………………………….Forsters Glass Company, St. Helens, Lancashire, England (United Kingdom), 1902-1966. Forsters was acquired in 1966 by Rockware Glass, and Rockware eventually became part of Ardagh Glass in 2006. This mark is frequently seen on fishing net floats.
      • F.G.MFG.CO. …………..Unknown.
      • F.G.W. ………………………Fairmount Glass Works/Fairmount Glass Company, Fairmount, Indiana (1889-1906) & Indianapolis, Indiana (c.1906-1968).  See Fairmount Glass Works page.
      • F.H. ……………….Frederick Heitz Glass Works,  St. Louis, Missouri (1882-1897).
      • F.H.G.W…………..Frederick Heitz Glass Works,  St. Louis, Missouri (1882-1897).
      • F.I.CO…………….Unknown. Seen on beer bottles from c.1900-1920 period.
      • FID 2 (seen on milk bottles) ……………..Fidelity Glass Company, Tarentum, Pennsylvania (1895-1916).
      • FIDELITY………….Fidelity Glass Company, Tarentum, Pennsylvania (1895-1916).
      • 55 FULTON ST (as seen on glass electrical insulators)………………………. this address positively identifies an insulator to be a product of the Brookfield Glass Company (Bushwick Glass Works), at their first manufacturing facility in Brooklyn, New York. The address (a business office address) indicates the insulator was probably made sometime in the 1868-1882 time period.  For more information on this glassmaker, please see my page on Brookfield Glass Company. 
      • Fire-King……………………………Anchor-Hocking Glass Corporation (1937-to date). This has been an extremely popular line of glassware since introduced in the 1940s. Fire-King glassware has been made in semi-opaque or “translucent” colors, as well as fired-on colors over transparent or white milk glass. Fire-King is made of a heat-resistant type of glass, and many patterns and styles of bowls, cake pans, and other items for oven use have been made, competing with Pyrex-brand cookware manufactured by Corning Glass. Tremendous numbers of drinking mugs and cups have been made with the Fire-King brand name logo on the bottom, and these are avidly collected today, especially by the so-called “baby boomers” growing up during the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, when so many of these items were in popular use in most American homes. Many of the mugs and bowls have surface-applied color decoration, which sometimes begins to wear off, thus washing them in an automatic dishwasher is strongly discouraged. Vintage Fire-King ware has great nostalgic value, and can be seen frequently for sale at antique malls and flea markets. Please see “Anchor with an H superimposed” mark on this page.
      • F.L. ……………….Frederick Lorenz & Co, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This mark (and “F. L. & Co.”) was listed by Rhea Mansfield Knittle in Early American Glass (1927:441;444).  Some sources give the dates 1819-1840 for the use of one or both of these marks. Knittle notes that “F.L.& CO.” appears on a Union-Clasped Hands pictorial flask, but McKearin & Wilson (1978:651) show that the mark as “L.F.& Co”. In any case that flask would certainly date from the 1860s or 1870s. See “F R L”.
      • F.L. & Co………………….see above entry.
      • Fletcher’s Castoria  / Pitcher’s Castoria ………. See page here.
      • Fleur de Lis design/logo (seen on the base of pressed glass vase)……..Unknown trademark. I suspect this may be of foreign origin, perhaps European

        FMF (Photo courtesy Michael Johnson)

        FMF (Photo courtesy Michael Johnson)

      • FMF (shown)………..Food Manufacturers Federation. (See post submitted by Jeremy Kemp on 8/27/2017 in the “Comments” section). Seen on clear bottles in the United Kingdom.
      • FN 21 ………………. unknown. Reported by Lee Taylor on base of handmade aqua export style beer bottle, probably circa 1900-1920. The initials might stand for a brewer or bottler?
      • FORSTERS…………………………………See F.G.C. entry.
      • Fort Trumbull Glass Co. ………………………….Fort Trumbull Glass Company, New London, Connecticut (1865-1868) . Mark is known on the base of cylinder whiskey bottle.
      • 45 CLIFF ST (as seen embossed on glass electrical insulators)…………………………. this address positively identifies this insulator to be a product of the Brookfield Glass Company, made at their Brooklyn, New York location. The Cliff Street address was a business office address, and indicates the insulator was most likely made sometime in the 1882-1890 time frame. See my page on Brookfield Glass Company for more information.
      • Frank Miller’s Crown Dressing……………. a popular type of shoe polish (“shoe dressing”), especially well-known during the late Victorian era, circa 1880s-1890s. For more information, please see this webpage.
      • F. R. L. …………….Frederick R. Lorenz, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania  (c.1854-1860). Sources disagree on the time period of this particular mark, but empirical evidence from certain blob top soda bottles indicate the mark was definitely in use at least sometime between 1854 and 1858.

        Foss & Schneider Brewery, Cincinnati, Ohio - mark used c. 1877-1884. (Picture courtesy Jimmy Bray)

        Foss & Schneider Brewery, Cincinnati, Ohio – mark used c. 1877-1884 (Photo courtesy Jimmy Bray)

      • F. & S.  CIN. O.  (on base of amber “export beer” style bottle) …………. Foss & Schneider Brewery, Cincinnati, Ohio.  Foss-Schneider Brewing Company was in business for many years but the exact business name of the company changed several times and was “Foss & Schneider Brewery” circa 1877-1884, according to this webpage: 

        F V mark - Fábrica de Envases de Vidrio S.A. de C.V., Mexicali, Mexico

        FV mark- Fábrica de Envases de Vidrio S.A. de C.V., Mexicali, Mexico.

      • FV (connected, as shown) Fábrica de Envases de Vidrio S.A. de C.V., Mexicali, Mexico.  (1987-to date). This company manufactures huge quantities of soda & beer bottles (including Coke bottles) for use in Mexico and the United States. Not sure on exact span of time this mark has been in actual use, but I have seen it on a “Mexican Coke” returnable-style bottle code dated 2006.
      • G (alone, or within a circle)………… On the base of some cobalt blue bottles, such as Phillips Milk of Magnesia Tablets,  this “G” stands for Gulfport Glass Company, Gulfport, Mississippi (1955-1970). Gulfport Glass Co. made large quantities of the Phillips M.O.M. bottles.  Gulfport was acquired by the Dorsey Corporation in 1968.
      • G…………………Gayner Glass Works, Salem, New Jersey (on some bottles especially in the earlier years). See “G in a circle”.
      • G…………………Glenshaw Glass Company, Glenshaw, Pennsylvania (1895-2004) on some bottles. Also, see “G in a square” mark.
      • G (highly stylized logo seen on upscale tableware including tumblers) ……………. this particular mark is actually an “R” but might be mistaken as an abstract “C” or “G”. Please see the “R” entry on page four showing an actual photograph of this mark which is used by Rosendahl, Copenhagen, Denmark.

        Gamer Packaging mark

        Gamer Packaging ‘G mark’, seen on base of amber glass Fentimans Ginger Beer bottle, made circa 2010.

      • G (stylized capital G inside a square, as shown in accompanying pic)……………Gamer Packaging, Minneapolis, MN. (1987-to date).  Gamer Packaging is a distributor/wholesaler of glass bottles as well as other types of packaging including plastic and metal containers. Some items are manufactured directly by them, others by arrangement with other companies. Gamer apparently has an arrangement with Ardagh Group (which includes former Anchor Glass manufacturing plants) to supply glass bottles to their customers. Although Ardagh is mentioned on the official Gamer site, other unnamed glass firms might also supply some bottles sold by/through Gamer Packaging.  It is unclear exactly where any particular bottle with this “G” mark might have been made, but possibly at any of the Ardagh glassmaking plants (see a list of Ardagh plants on my page about the S.G. mark used by Saint-Gobain Containers). Some bottles are also made by unidentified glass companies located in Asia, specifically, China.  The bottle with this particular mark (shown) was sold by Fentimans (
      • G in a circle……………Gayner Glass Works (1898-1937), later Gayner Glass Company, Salem, New Jersey (1937-1957+). Mark reportedly used in the c. 1920s on machine-made bottles. Gayner Glass Co. was bought by National Bottle Corporation in 1957. I currently do not have info on later marks, and whether, or how long after 1957, Gayner continued to use their own trademarks on their glass production. See next entry and “GGW”.
      • G in a circle…….in some cases, Gulfport Glass Company, Gulfport, Mississippi (1955-1970). This information comes from Toulouse (Bottle Makers & Their Marks, page 210) although how to tell this apart from the “G in a circle” mark used by Gayner (above) is not clear. Toulouse writes that Gulfport made blue and amber containers, and that Gulfport was acquired in 1968 by Dorsey Corporation of Chattanooga, TN although the operation was continued under the Gulfport name until 1970.
      • G in a diamond……………..Probably General Glass Corporation, Winchester, IN (circa 1931-1937).  This mark is confirmed to exist on the base of some “Old Mr. Boston” pint size liquor bottles. For more detailed information on this rather obscure mark, please see this webpage:
      • Gallo Glass Company trademark. "G inside an Oval"

        Gallo Glass Company trademark, “G inside an Oval”

        G in an oval (shown)……….Gallo Glass Company, Modesto, California (1966-to date). Gallo produces large quantities of wine bottles for their products. This “g” is written in a cursive script and on some of their bottles the mark might be mistaken for an odd-looking capital “S”, especially if the embossing is light. Most often seen on the bottom of heavy green glass bottles.

      • G inside a square………………Glenshaw Glass Company, Glenshaw, Pennsylvania (1895-2004). Prolific maker of green glass soda bottles as well as many other containers.  Mark reportedly used since 1932.  Glenshaw Glass Company later became part of the Anchor Glass Container Corporation, but then was bought by Consumers Packaging Inc, of Toronto, Canada.  The Glenshaw glass plant was closed in November of 2004.  In 2007 the Glenshaw glass plant re-opened after extensive renovation and re-organization, thereafter producing glass containers and other ware under the name Kelman Bottles, LLC. (2008-  )    I haven’t been able to found out much info on the company or their products in the last few years, although I am assuming they are still in business (?)  A brief news article mentioned a fire that occurred at the factory site in 2011, and manufacture of bottles was still going on at that time. I understand Kelman Bottles is primarily a producer of wine bottles.  If anyone has more background info on their bottle production and/or mark(s) used on Kelman’s products, please send me an email!

        Glenshaw Glass Company - G inside a square, as seen on the base of a green soda bottle.

        Glenshaw Glass Company – G inside a square, as seen on the base of a green soda bottle.

      • G within the raised outline of a bottle……………..Gayner Glass Works/Company, Salem, New Jersey. See “G in a circle” and “GGW” entries.
      • G 23, G 24, G 25, or similar configuration, embossed along the lower heel area of soda bottles (usually seen in light aqua or light green glass), this number is normally found within a string of several other letters and/or numbers. Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana. See Graham.
      • G.A.Berry & CO….George A. Berry and Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (later Duquesne Glass Co.)

        Glass Containers Corporation - GC mark (photo courtesy Jason Carpenter)

        Glass Containers Corporation —  G over C mark (photo courtesy Jason Carpenter)

      • GC , G C, G/C,  G over C, Angular G entwined with C……………………Glass Containers, Inc., later known as Glass Containers Corporation, (1933-c.1984?), main office (after 1959) in Fullerton, California.  Please see the Glass Containers Corporation page.
      • GCC, G C C ……………Glass Containers Corporation, Fullerton, California and other glass plant locations.  See Glass Containers Corporation page.
      • G. C. CO ……………….. Uncertain. For a pictured example of this mark, please see Glass Containers Corporation  page.
      • Gem (representation of a gem, jewel, or cut diamond). See Jewel listing, farther down on this page.
      • Gemco………………………….Gemco (1959-1986) was the name of a chain of retail department stores (parent company: Lucky Stores), mostly operating in the Western areas of the United States. (Stores in the chain that operated in the East were called Memco.)  Gemco sold a wide variety of consumer goods, including housewares. The embossed name “GEMCO” appears often on glass kitchen-related items including salt and pepper shakers, sugar shakers, syrup pitchers, measuring cups, and other items of that nature. The Gemco stock was liquidated in 1986, and many of the former Gemco stores were purchased by Target Stores. Most glassware marked GEMCO was manufactured by Corning Glass Works. Items encountered include both Pyrex-style ‘semi-opaque’ glass, and transparent (clear) glass.
      • Geo. W. Robinson (North Wheeling Glass Works, Wheeling, West Virginia). Please see “Robinson, Geo. W” entry, page four).

        GF mark used by Gijon Fabril. (Photo courtesy of Michelle Marie)

        GF mark used by Gijon Fabril. (Photo courtesy of Michelle Marie)

      • GF  or G F (Letters are connected by a downward arching underline which curves underneath them, somewhat creating the appearance that the letters are seated in a small boat). …………………. Gijón Fabril,  La Calzada, Gijón, Asturias, España (Spain) —– (1915-2016).  I’ve been told this mark has been used since 1915, although on earlier bottles the mark can be very indistinct. The beginnings of this enterprise date as far back as 1844. In 1900 Gijon Industrial was formed, which was superceded in 1915 by Gijon Fabril.  Bottles and other glassware were made in large quantities until 1982 when the factory became a mold-making facility.  The most well-known bottles made by this company, of green glass, were made for cider, a very popular beverage produced in Gijon. (This is an alcoholic apple cider, known as “hard cider” in the United States). The company finally went bankrupt in 2016.  (Thank you Michelle Marie for info on this company).
      • G G W (monogram, with the second “G” somewhat larger and overlapping the first “G” and the “W”). Gayner Glass Works, Salem, New Jersey (1898-1937), later Gayner Glass Company (1937-1957+). Monogram, accompanying this glass manufacturer’s name and city, seen on an advertising paperweight, reported to me by Bob Berkley. See “G in a circle” entry.
      • G & H……………Gray & Hemingray, Cincinnati, Ohio / Covington, Kentucky (1848-1856). See Hemingray & H.G.CO. marks.

        Unknown mark, possibly Chinese. (pic courtesy Andy Erikson)

        Unknown mark, possibly Chinese (pic courtesy Andy E.)

      • G with “J” (??) inside (shown)………………… Unidentified mark, as seen on red piece of sea glass. There are also Chinese characters embossed on the piece. Perhaps the bottom of a red jar, bottle, vase?  If anyone has information on the origin of this mark, please contact me!
      • Glasbake…………………………..McKee Glass Company, Jeannette, Pennsylvania. “Glasbake” is a brand name embossed on the bottom of much glassware for household use……….this was a popular name introduced and  used by McKee for their high-quality, heat-resistant ovenware, serving bowls, and other kitchen ware. The Glasbake line was inroduced in 1917, and competed with Pyrex (made by Corning Glass Works) and Fire-King (Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation). The glass formula was changed (after a lawsuit was filed by Corning) and re-introduced in 1919.  The Glasbake brand was used more or less continuously throughout the succeeding years, under Thatcher Glass ownership (1951-1961), and later by Jeannette Glass Company until 1979. See McKee Glass Company page for a little more general information on this operation.
      • Glassblower design/logo (trademark showing the figure of a man holding a glass blowpipe upward, blowing into the pipe.  In some instances, the design might be mistaken for a man blowing on a musical instrument……….  this trademark was used by MacBeth-Evans Glass Company, Pittsburgh, PA; Charleroi, PA; Toledo, OH; Marion, IN – 1899-1936), and later by Corning Glass Works, Corning, New York, which acquired MacBeth-Evans in 1936.  According to “400 Trademarks on Glass” (Arthur G. Peterson, 1968), this mark was used as early as 1880 by predecessors of Macbeth-Evans. The mark has been seen on lamp chimneys as well as various tableware items.
      • Globe……………….Hemingray Glass Company, Covington, KY & Muncie, IN. Trade name of their best-known fruit jar. Also, see H.G.CO. mark.
      • Golden Harvest…………….brand name used on a line of modern fruit jars (canning jars) that are evidently manufactured by Anchor Hocking Corporation (Lancaster, Ohio) and/or Anchor Glass Container Corporation (Tampa, Florida) . Not sure which exact glass manufacturing plant locations are involved. (If you know, contact me and I can add that info to the page).  (As of August, 2012, Anchor Glass Container Corporation has been  purchased by Ardagh Group, based in Luxembourg, Europe). Golden Harvest along with Kerr and Ball are the most popular brand names seen on modern clear glass canning jars sold in the United States. Apparently most of them are still (as of 2018) produced within the US.  Please see my entries on “Anchor” , “Kerr” and “Ball”.
      • GPD (G P D)…………………..Glass Products Division, Arrowhead Puritas Water Company, Los Angeles, California (1956-mid-1960s?). Seen on the bases of 5-gallon water bottles (carboys) typically made of  medium blue aqua glass. Year dates from the 1950s and 1960s are usually embossed on the bottom.  These bottles were made at Gardena, California, at the former McLaughlin glass plant where these same types of large water bottles were hand-made, but those earlier ones are marked “McL” on the base. For more information, see the reference “Dreams of Glass: The Story of William McLaughlin and his Glass Company” by Fred Padgett (1996), page 85.
      • Graham………………Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana; Loogootee, Indiana; and Okmulgee, Oklahoma (1907-1929). Another plant location also was operated at Chekotah, Oklahoma until 1923. Graham owned by Owens Bottle Company after 1916, plants became part of Owens-Illinois in 1929.
      • Granite Glass Co. / Stoddard, N.H. ………………………..seen on whiskey flasks. Granite Glass Company, Stoddard, New Hampshire (1848-1862). More in-depth info on this glassworks at
      • GW (G superimposed over a W, seen on upscale tableware, opaque glassware, etc)………………..Westmoreland Glass Company, Grapeville, Pennsylvania (1889-1984). Westmoreland made large quantities of white milkglass tableware and decorative ware including many of the older “hen on nest” dishes. Please see “W superimposed over a G” entry on page three.
      • G.W. (on the base of handblown bottles)……………….see Great Western Glass Company,  St. Louis, Missouri  (1874-c.1887?) .
      • G.W. & J. ……………..Unknown.  Initials, arranged in a circular formation, seen on the base of blackglass (very dark olive green or dark olive amber) ale or brandy bottles of British origin. The “G” may appear to be a “C”. Also, the order of the letters could also be construed as “W. & J. G.”  From the general appearance of these bottles, (rather heavy, crude, with very dark glass color), I’m assuming they date from sometime in the 1850-1880s period.
      • G W K & Co. Z O…………………George W. Kearns & Company, Zanesville, Ohio (c.1860-1868). Seen on the front of a strapside whiskey flask.  See also “K” and “K H & G Z O” marks.
      • H………………….. this letter was used by several glass companies: On flint (clear) medicine bottles, usually indicates W. H. Hamilton & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1863-1898) and Charleroi, Pennsylvania (1898-1918).  An “H” is shown on the base of bottles illustrated in their 1898 bottle catalog (cut shown on page 251, Glasshouses and Glass Manufacturers of the Pittsburgh Region, Jay W. Hawkins, 2009).   Other possibilities include Hemingray Glass Company, Muncie, Indiana [See Hemingray];  H.J.Heinz Glass Company, Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania (c.1893-1946);  and Hagerty’s Glass Works, Brooklyn, New York.  Also, please see next several entries.
      • H (found on bottles from the western region of the US)……………..probably (not yet proven?),  Holt Glass Works, West Berkeley, California (1893-1906). This company appears to be the source of various bottles with an “H” found primarily in the Western states. These bottles typically have a number (with one, two, or three digits) accompanying the “H”. In most cases, the number is reportedly found ABOVE the “H”, although in some cases is may appear either below, or positioned to the right of the letter. Please keep in mind that positive attribution of a bottle with an “H” mark to any definite glasshouse is often very uncertain. NOTE: Hand-blown aqua oval bottles with applied or tooled lips, some shown to have been used for Reuben P. Hall’s “Hall’s Hair Renewer”, are found with just an “H” on the base, and in this case, the “H”  MIGHT stand for “Hall”. These bottles may have been produced by W. H. Hamilton & Company, since it is likely that Hamilton also made “green glass” (aqua) bottles although they advertised themselves as “flint” bottle makers.  See next entry also.
      • H-28 (or w/other 2-digit number)….Hemingray Glass Company, Muncie, Indiana (used c. 1924-1935). Information proven to be correct from Hemingray historian/researcher Bob Stahr. However, this doesn’t rule out the possibility that a mark similar to this one could be seen on products from other glass factories. Type of bottle, age, color, and other characteristics must be taken into account to decide if this would be a Hemingray product. NOTE: If the number consists of either one or three digits, it is not Hemingray. On Heinz bottles, a number (which may consist of one, two, or three digits) which accompanies an “H” on the base refers to a particular design or style of bottle made by Heinz, and is not Hemingray-related.  Holt Glass Works, West Berkeley, California is believed to have produced bottles with an “H” and a number, but these are usually found only on the West Coast. See “H” entry above.
      • H in a circle…………Hemingray Glass Company, Muncie, Indiana (mark used c.1924-1935).
      • H in a square…………Hemingray Glass Company, Muncie, Indiana (mark used c.1924-1935).
      • H in a triangle……….J.T.& A. Hamilton, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1884-1943). Mark reportedly used approximately 1900-1943.
      • H within a vertical diamond (on elegant pressed and blown glass tableware, but not utilitarian container ware)…………………….A. H. Heisey & Company, Newark, Ohio (1896-1957).  This company produced handmade pattern glass tableware,  stemware and other high quality “elegant” decorative glass.  Several types of perfume bottles were also made.  NOTE:  This mark (or a very similar mark) has also been seen on the bases of several types of glass covered animal dishes (“hen-on-nests”) in opaque “slag glass” or other colors, but those items are recent imports from Asia and were not made by Heisey.  Another mark that may in some cases look somewhat similar is the “I in a diamond” mark used by Illinois Glass Company, Alton, IL, which was used primarily on utilitarian and commercial types of bottles.   See “Diamond……” entries on page two.

        "H over A" trademark used by Hazel-Atlas Glass Company

        “H over A” trademark used by Hazel-Atlas Glass Company

      • H over an A (somewhat resembling a table with a small step-stool placed underneath, shown)…………….Hazel-Atlas Glass Company, Wheeling, West Virginia; started at Washington, PA; later plants included Clarksburg, WV; Zanesville, OH; Ada, OK; Montgomery, AL; Oakland, CA; Pomona, CA and other locations. (1902-1964).  This mark is often misidentified as having been used by Anchor Hocking.  For more information on this mark, please go to my Hazel-Atlas page.
      • HA, H A, H/A  ………………………………see Hazel-Atlas Glass Company  .
      • Hagerty’s Glass Works……..Hagerty’s Glass Works, Brooklyn, New York (c.1849-c.1900). Glass factory name seen spelled out in a circle on the base of blob-top soda bottles. This factory was known as “Hagerty’s Glass Works” until at least 1875, later became “Hagerty Bros & Company”, and perhaps other slight variations on the name. Hagerty might have used some other marks, but if so, it is not certain what they were.
      • Hair (mark somewhat like a small curly ‘hair’, embedded into the glass on the base of drinking articles)………………..actually an “L” in cursive script, Libbey Glass.  See this page for more information.
      • Hamilton Glass Works, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (c. 1864-c.1898).  Hamilton Glass Works was purchased/absorbed by Diamond Glass in 1893 or 1894.  Hamilton made fruit jars as well as electrical insulators. Many of the fruit jars are marked across the front “HAMILTON / No 1 / GLASS WORKS” (and other numbers such as No. 2, No. 3 or No 4).  Some jars were made for a cork closure, others are to be fitted with a glass lid and metal clamp-style closure.
      • Hawley Glass Co / Hawley, PA…………….Hawley Glass Company, Hawley, Pennsylvania. (Dates uncertain, perhaps c. 1872-1885). Seen on the base of fruit jars. This was not the same company as the Harloe Insulator Company (c.1902-c.1906) which produced glass insulators marked with an “H I CO” monogram placed above “HAWLEY PA/ U.S.A.”.
      • H-B………..unknown.

        Unknown monogram HB (?) mark on base of leech bowl or fish bowl. (Photo courtesy of Steve Wilkerson.)

        Unknown monogram HB (?) mark on base of leech bowl or fish bowl. (Photo courtesy of Steve Wilkerson.)

      • H B, or possibly B H (letters entwined– monogram)………………..Unknown manufacturer. This mark (pictured) occurs on the base of a clear/off-clear fish bowl or leech bowl. “Older” looking glass with bubbles, possibly 1890-1930 era? Hagerty Bros. & Company comes to mind, but this is only a possibility, not a definite attribution! Ideas from readers on correct ID of this mark are solicited!
      • H inside a C………..See “C with an H inside it” mark.
      • H.C.& T…………Holz, Clark & Taylor, Salem, New Jersey (1866-1872).

        Heart shape- on base of case gin bottle (pic courtesy of Caroline Rogers).

        Heart  shape on base of case gin bottle. (Pic courtesy of Caroline Rogers).

      • Heart-shaped logo (shown)………….seen on base of dark olive green square-based “case gin” bottle, possibly a product of Holland, circa 1840s-1870s?  The heart embossing is slightly “ghosted” (double striked) on this example. If anyone has information that could help identify the maker of this bottle, please write!
      • Hemingray…………………Hemingray Glass Company, Muncie, Indiana (used on base of refrigerator bottles, c.1924-1935). Hemingray was most widely known for their glass electrical insulators, which are marked with the company name, or with “H.G.CO”, and/or other markings. For more discussion on Hemingray, click here .
      • H.F.J.CO…………….Letters are placed in the four arms of a cross (similar to a formée or Maltese cross) which appears on fruit jars with the “Mason’s / Patent/ Nov 30TH /1858” embossing. Hero Fruit Jar Works, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1883-1908). Hero subcontracted some of their jar orders out to other glass companies, such as Findlay Bottle Company, Findlay, Ohio (1888-1893); Marion Fruit Jar & Bottle Company, Marion, Indiana (1888-1904); and Cumberland Glass Mnfg. Company, Bridgeton, New Jersey (1870-1900), so there is a possibility that any individual jar could have been made at one of those other factories. Please see Mason’s Patent Nov 30th 1858 fruit jars page.

        Hillsboro Glass Company, Hillsboro, Illinois - HG over Triangle logo

        Hillsboro Glass Company, Hillsboro, Illinois – HG over Triangle logo

      • HG over triangle (shown)……………Hillsboro Glass Company, Hillsboro, Illinois (1961-1997).  This plant was opened in 1907 by Schram Automatic Sealer Company, a prolific maker of fruit jars based in St. Louis. The company name was changed in 1913 to Schram Glass Manufacturing Company. The plant was purchased by Ball Bros. Glass Manufacturing Company in 1925. Ball continued to operate it (with some occasional shutdowns over the years) from 1925 until 1961, at which time it was sold to Hiram Walker & Sons Distilleries, already a heavy buyer of amber whiskey bottles produced at the plant. As of October 18, 1961,  the plant officially became the Hillsboro Glass Company, a subsidiary of Hiram Walker.  All, or nearly all, of the glass production consisted of amber bottles and jars.  In 1996, Hillsboro Glass was sold to G & G Investments, a holding company based in Pittsburgh.  In August of 1997, an announcement was made that the plant would soon close, and the factory shut down completely in October of 1997, with about 250 employees losing their jobs as a result.  For a more complete timeline,  see this  page from the Historical Society of Montgomery County, Illinois website.    This former glass plant is actually located in Schram City, a small community on the eastern edge of Hillsboro.
      • H.G.CO…………….Hemingray Glass Company, Covington, KY & Muncie, IN (used on bottles c.1870-1895; insulators until about 1915). See more on Hemingray here .
      • HGCO (monogram)………Hemingray Glass Company, Covington, Kentucky (used on fruit jars circa 1880-1888).
      • HGW (monogram)……….On fruit jars with the “Mason’s Patent/ Nov 30 1858” embossing, this monogram stands for the Hero Glass Works, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1869-1883) and Lockport, New York (1869-1872). The monogram may be difficult to decipher. HGW became Hero Fruit Jar Company in 1883 (see H.F.J.CO.)
      • H. Heye………………Hermann Heye Glasfabrick [Glass Factory], several locations in Germany. Bottle with mark “GLASS WORKS/H.HEYE/HAMBURG” on base is confirmed, and probably dates from the 1880s or 1890s. I believe this company is still in business.
      • Hitchins……………… the lettering “GLASS FROM F. HITCHINS FACTORY, LOCKPORT, N.Y.” is embossed in a circle on the base of spring water bottle made for Oak Orchard Acid Springs.  Francis Hitchins ran the Lockport Glass Works of Lockport, New York from 1850 to 1866. See Lockport Glass Works entry.
      • H. J. HEINZ CO., with a triangle mark in the center of the base…….H.J.Heinz Glass Company, Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania. (c.1893-1946). Many of Heinz’s bottles were made by other glass manufacturers, especially in later years.  See “H” and “H-28” marks.   Note: for a discussion on Heinz, with pictures of lots of the older HEINZ-embossed food bottles that have been found, check out Betty Zumwalt’s ground-breaking reference work Ketchups, Pickles, Sauces (1980).
      • H L / NY …………………Unknown.  Initials seen on base of tooled-lip crown-top beer bottle (circa 1900-1920?) from Quandt Brewing Company of Troy, New York.  Bottle reported by Jake Smith.
      • Honesdale Glass Works………..Honesdale Glass Works, Traceyville (near Honesdale), Pennsylvania (1847-1861). Factory name seen on base of soda bottles, embossed in a circle. This factory, located along the Lackawaxen River, was destroyed by a flood when a dam gave way in 1861. James Brookfield worked at this factory before moving to Brooklyn, NY to become involved in the Bushwick Glass Works (later known as the Brookfield Glass Company). Several years passed until in 1865 the Honesdale property was purchased and a new glass factory was built, variously known in later years as “Honesdale Glass Works”, “White Mills Glass Works”, “C. Dorflinger & Company” or “Wayne County Glass Works”. Cut glass was their specialty.
      • Hoosier Glass…………………….. Trademark used by Syndicate Sales, Inc, of Kokomo, Indiana (1949- present), distributor of  a wide variety of products relating to the floral industry, as seen on the bases of emerald green and clear florist vases. The “Hoosier Glass” line was introduced in 1979, and was sold for several years afterward (not sure of the last year those two words were embossed on the bottom of  products, but possibly sometime into the mid-to-late 1980s or early 1990s).  I was told by a company official that the HG vases were first made by Foster-Forbes Glass Company, as well as, later, several other (unnamed) glass companies here in the United States.  I am guessing some of them might have been made by Indiana Glass Company or Anchor Hocking Corporation, but I don’t have any documentation to confirm that.
      • Horseshoe and Star, as seen on the bottoms of small jelly glasses or tumblers. Please see this page with more information: Horseshoe & Star. 
      • Houze, HouzeX…………..L. J. Houze Convex Glass Company, Point Marion, Pennsylvania. Makers of lenses, art glass, rolled sheet glass, signal semaphores, perfume bottles, glass for lighting fixtures, mirror blanks, automotive glass, multi-colored slag glass ashtrays, etc.  Website with more information on Houze:
      • H. & P. D. CO………….Hazeltine & Perkins Drug Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan (c. 1890-1910). Info courtesy Bob Davidson.
      • H superimposed over an anchor emblem……..Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation, Lancaster, Ohio,  Monaca, Pennsylvania and other plant locations. (Mark used 1937-to date).  See  Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation page with several marks shown.

        "I inside a diamond" mark used by Illinois Glass Company, Alton, IL

        “I inside a diamond” mark used by Illinois Glass Company, Alton, IL

      • I within a diamond (shown)………..Illinois Glass Company, Alton, Illinois (1873-1929). This mark is seen on the bases of millions of machine-made bottles of all types dating from the 1915-1929 period.  The mark is one of the most common glass manufacturers’ marks seen on glass bottles found in early-20th century bottle dumps, landfills and other trash dumping areas. For more information, please see the “I within a diamond” and LYRIC pages.
      • I within an “O”………………. page with more info:  Owens-Illinois Glass Company (recently re-named simply “O-I”), formerly headquartered at Toledo, OH, now Perrysburg, Ohio. Approximately 25 glass manufacturing locations in the US and Canada, with the most recently  opened plant at Windsor, Colorado. (1929-to date), this mark used from c. 1954 up to very recently, being gradually replaced (starting c. 2010?) with the “O-I” mark on most bottles.
        "I inside of an O" trademark/logo - Owens-Illinois Glass Company

        “I inside of an O” trademark/logo – Owens-Illinois Glass Company

        The diamond was removed from the “old” mark (diamond superimposed over an “I” and an “O” or oval) beginning around 1954, although a few bottle molds apparently didn’t have the diamond eliminated (i.e., the mold re-engraved) until as late as the 1960s.  After 1958 the great majority of O-I bottles carried the simplified mark of just an I inside an O.  On recent bottles, this mark may be small, faint, and not always easily discernible, usually seen embossed on the heel of the container. O-I is presently (2019) the largest glass making corporation in the world. A wide variety of glass containers are made, primarily for food and beverage products.

      • IB (BI)…… stylized mark used by Ball-Incon Glass Packaging (1987-1994). Please see “BI” entry and accompanying photo of this mark on “Page One” of the glass marks pages.
      • I.B.& G.CO……..Indiana Bottle & Glass Company, Cicero, Indiana (1905-1909)
      • IG, I G ………………..See “I superimposed over a G” entry (Imperial Glass Company),below.
      • IGCO (monogram)………Illinois Glass Company, Alton, Illinois (1873-1929). This monogram which is seen most commonly on the “MASON’s PATENT NOV 30TH 1858” fruit jars may also indicate, in some cases, other unidentified glass companies, but most of these jars are presumed to be products of Illinois Glass. See the next 3 entries.
      • IGCO monogram within brackets [ ] ……………Intermountain Glass Company, Midvale, Utah. Mark seen on the base of “Mountain Mason” fruit jars. Exact period of operation of this company is not clear, but the jars are believed to date from about 1935-1936, per data from Alice Creswick (The Fruit Jar Works-Volume 2, 1987).
      • I.G.CO…………….Illinois Glass Company, Alton, Illinois (1873-1929). This mark was used possibly as early as the mid-1870s to around 1900, embossed on both bases and heels of bottles, and was also used for several years after 1900 primarily on the lower heels of their soda bottles (since the base would frequently be reserved for the logo or initials of the bottling company a bottle was made for). Use of the mark on certain soda bottles is known to have extended at least to 1909, perhaps 1911. Please see “I.G.CO.L”, “IGCO within a diamond” and “I within a diamond” marks.   Illinois Glass Company merged with Owens Bottle Company in 1929 to form the Owens-Illinois Glass Company.
      • I.G.CO.L…………..Ihmsen Glass Company, Limited, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1876-1900). Also listed as Ihmsen Window Glass Company. Pittsburgh directory listings show this company included the “Limited” in their name from 1876 to c.1896.  Bottles bearing this mark can definitely be attributed to this company, although some bottles from the Pittsburgh and surrounding area with an “I.G.CO.” mark (no L), might also be Ihmsen Glass Co. products.  However, I am increasingly skeptical about this claim, as I’ve recently seen more evidence that points to Illinois Glass Company as being the much more likely source for the “I.G.CO.” mark. Attributing any bottles with an I.G.CO. marking to Ihmsen is definitely fraught with uncertainty, and I feel more confident attributing them to Illinois Glass Company at present. Perhaps future research will uncover the facts on this matter once and for all. Any bottle collectors or researchers that have info on this question are invited to contact me at anytime. (Update , 12/2013) : The recently published comprehensive reference work Glasshouses and Glass Manufacturers of the Pittsburgh Region by Jay W. Hawkins (2009,  on pages 272-284)  has alot of detailed information on the Ihmsen group of glass companies, with various mark variations not listed on my site, along with background info. The Ihmsen family were involved in a number of separate enterprises over many years time in the Pittsburgh region, and their full history is rather complex.

        I.G.CO. within diamond ~ on base of light aqua square pickle bottle.

        I.G.CO. within a diamond ~ on base of light aqua square pickle bottle.

      • IGCO within a diamond………….Illinois Glass Company. Alton, Illinois (1873-1929). This mark was used from approximately 1895-1915. Please also see the “I within a diamond” and “LYRIC” pages.
      • I.G.W.Co. …………….. probably Indianapolis Glass Works Company, Indianapolis, Indiana (1870-c.1876). This mark has been reported on an amber ale bottle from Dayton, Ohio. The word “Company” was part of the name of this factory as listed in city directories of the period, although fruit jars and flasks are found with just the wording “Indianapolis Glass Works” embossed on them.
      • Illinois………………Illinois Glass Company, Alton, Illinois (1873-1929). Mark used c. 1910s-1929.  Also, see the I in a diamond page.
      • Imperial (IM /PE /RI /AL), the letters inside 4 small squares arranged to form one larger square, or in 4 segments inside a Maltese cross or “plus sign”………………….. Imperial Glass Company, Bellaire, Ohio (1902-1984). Found on tableware.  This particular mark believed to date from approximately 1904-1951. Also, see “I superimposed over a G” entry, located farther down on this page.
      • Indiana Glass…………….Indiana Glass Company, Dunkirk, Indiana & Sapulpa, Oklahoma (1907-2002). Producer of a huge variety of glassware (drinkware, all types of tableware, decorative glass, floral container glass, candle ware, Carnival glass, EAPG (Early American pattern glass /pressed glass), etc, for nearly a century. Almost all Indiana Glass glassware is unmarked, although I have seen a candy dish marked on the base “Indiana Glass/Made in U.S.A.” with an “LCC” mark. ( Indiana Glass Company was purchased by, and became a subsidiary of, the Lancaster Glass Corporation, based in Lancaster, Ohio, in 1957. That company expanded to become Lancaster Colony Corporation [LCC]  in 1961.)  The Dunkirk, IN plant shut down production of glass in 2002, and for a time afterward served as a warehouse and/or mold repair facility. Some glass was continued to be made under the Indiana Glass name at Sapulpa, Oklahoma (the former Bartlett-Collins Glass Company facility) until that plant was purchased by Anchor Hocking Company who closed it down in June 2008.  For more info on Indiana Glass, try this website here .  Also, check out this page discussing the “Hen-on-Nest” covered dishes made by Indiana Glass.
      • Indianapolis Glass Works……….Indianapolis Glass Works (Company), Indianapolis, Indiana (1870-c.1876). Seen on the base of wax sealer fruit jars and across face of whiskey flasks, probably other types of bottles also exist with this marking. See “I.G.W.Co.”

        I-P in a diamond (Photo courtesy Garrett Trask)

        I-P in a diamond (Photo courtesy Garrett Trask)

      • I-P inside a diamond (shown)…………. Illinois-Pacific Glass Company, San Francisco, CA (1902-c.1925). This mark is very rare, but confirmed to exist on the base of an amber beer bottle.
      • I.P.G.CO…………..Illinois-Pacific Glass Company, San Francisco, California (1902-c.1925). Plant locations also at Los Angeles, and later, Oakland, CA, Seattle, WA & Portland, OR.
      • IPGCO in a diamond……….Illinois-Pacific Glass Company, San Francisco, California (see above entry).

        IPG in triangle - on Clorox bottle

        IPG inside triangle-on heel of amber Clorox bottle

      • IPG in a triangle (as shown)…………Illinois-Pacific Glass Corporation, San Francisco, California (c.1925-1930 or 1932).  (Name change of company above.)  Glass plant locations at Los Angeles;  Oakland, CA; Seattle, WA;  & Portland, OR.  Usually has a tiny triangle inside the larger triangle, squeezed in above the letters. This mark might have been used earlier than 1925.
      • Isabella Glass Works…………………………………..Isabella Glass Works (also known as New Brooklyn Glass Works), New Brooklyn, New Jersey (1848-c.1868).  Pictorial flasks bearing this inscription along with an anchor on the front, and a representation of the glass factory on the reverse, are found which were made here. This glassworks is briefly discussed in Adeline Pepper’s reference work The Glass Gaffers of New Jersey (1971) which I heartily recommend for anyone interested in early American glass making, and New Jersey glassware in particular.
      • I S G CO…………..Interstate Glass Company, Kansas City, Missouri (1901-c.1903). Information on mark ID first sent to me courtesy of Tom Neff.  This mark is rarely seen on soda bottles, including a few Coca-Colas.  For more extensive background information on this short-lived glass company, please click here for a recently published article written by Scott Willoughby.

        Imperial Glass Company trademark: Letter "I" superimposed over a "G"

        Imperial Glass Company trademark: Letter “I” superimposed over a “G”

      • I superimposed over a G………………Imperial Glass Company, Bellaire, Ohio (1902-1984). This particular mark was used from 1951-1977 on high quality tableware and novelties including milk glass, carnival glass, and other glassware of many patterns and in many shapes, forms and colors. For more information on Imperial Glass and the various trademarks that were used, please check out this site: National Imperial Glass Collectors Society.  On many items, the mark can be difficult to make out, and sometimes the letter “I”  looks somewhat like an ornately designed number “1”.
      • I X L …………….I X L Glass Bottle Company, Inglewood, California (1921-1923)
      • J . . (two periods or raised dots)………………… seen on base of heavy, crude black glass ale, beer or wine bottle, sand pontil, probably British or possibly American, looks circa 1820s-1850s. Unknown maker. There is also a small “D” along base rim. Bottle posted on ebay November 2017.
      • J in a diamond……..Uncertain. Seen on base of crown-top Coca-Cola bottles from Chattanooga, TN.  There is a possibility this might stand for Johns Bros, Fairmont, WV (1893-1907) but there is no proof that this is so.  Johns Bros made crown style soda bottles.
      • J in a keystone…….Knox Bottle Company, Jackson, Mississippi (1932-1953)
      • J in a square………Jeannette Glass Company, Jeannette, Pennsylvania (1889-1983). Exact period of use of this mark is unclear …….. perhaps 1920s-1960s. If you have specific information on the years this mark was used on their ware, please contact me! Also please see McKee Glass Company  page.
      • JB (B superimposed over J)………this mark is rather indistinct and appears to be a “B” with the lower loop of a “J” hanging down from underneath it. Probably Johns Bros, Fairmont, West Virginia (1893-1907). Seen on heel of amber slug-plate crown-top soda bottle made for H. Epping, Louisville, KY.
      • J Bros…………….See Johns Bros, below.

        Cut diamond or some other type of jewel mark. on shot glass. (Photo courtesy of Patti Moreno.)

        Emblem of a cut diamond or some other type of jewel, as seen on base of shot glass. (Photo courtesy of Patti Moreno.)

      • Jewel (Representation of a jewel/gem such as a cut diamond, photo shown at right)………………unknown meaning.  This embossed emblem appears on the base of a clear shot glass with green and white “Applied color label” type graphics, perhaps from sometime in the 1940s-1960s??  If anyone has information about this mark, please let us know!

        J. G. Co. mark (photo courtesy of Taylor McBurney).

        J. G. Co. mark (photo courtesy of Taylor McBurney).

      • J. G. Co………………..Jeannette Glass Company, Jeannette, PA. (1889-1983).  These initials were seen on the base of a Curtice Brothers ketchup bottle, reported by Taylor McBurney.  Jeannette Glass Company  made  bottles  earlier in their history.  See “J in a square” entry, also see this  web page with more detailed  info:
        Base of 1997 green bird paperweight (Photo courtesy Kurtis Runyon)

        Base of 1997 green bird paperweight (Photo courtesy Kurtis Runyon)

        Signature as impressed on base of yellow bird paperweight

        Signature as impressed on base of yellow bird paperweight

      • JIM DAVIS (impressed signature mark on base of bird paperweight)………….my site doesn’t delve much into art glass, which is a very wide field in itself, but recently I came across a small bird paperweight with this mark and it piqued my curiosity. Doing a little research on the name “Jim Davis” I find there seems to be two different glass artisans who made handmade glass articles. The mark pictured is apparently that of James E. Davis (1932-2017) who was affiliated with the “House of Glass” art glass studio in Elwood, Indiana and made paperweights in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s (perhaps later?).  I recently received information and some base photos showing that he made bird paperweights until at least 1997, as they were marked with the year “1997” placed underneath his signature.      The other “Jim Davis” (James C. Davis –  1930-2007) specialized in art glass marbles, was the father of 6 sons who also made art glass, and was based in Pennsboro, West Virginia for many years.  If you have more detailed info on these two men and the marks they used, please contact me.
      • J. J. G. …………………..Unknown.  Initials appear, in a circular formation, on the base of a plain, square medium-sized aquamarine pickle bottle, distinctly American, of a type generally made circa 1875-1895. This might stand for a food/dry goods distributor instead of a glass company?  The order of the letters may also be interpreted as  “J. G. J.”  or “G. J. J.”
      • J.K. …………………John Kilner & Company, Castleford, Yorkshire, England. Years of usage of this mark is uncertain.  See next 2 entries.
      • J.K. & Co. …………….John Kilner & Company, Castleford, Yorkshire, England.  From Julian Toulouse’s “Bottle Makers and their Marks“, confusion reigns as to the exact stretch of years this mark was actually used. He states “1842-1844” which I strongly doubt.  The company evidently existed, in various incarnations, for many years afterward. I suspect that most bottles so marked may date from the 1850s to the 1880s, but don’t quote me on that! 🙂  See “J K & S” for related mark.
      • J K & S ………………… John Kilner & Sons, Wakefield, Yorkshire, or  Thornhill Lees, Yorkshire, England.  Similar to the marks J K & Co (above) confusion on the actual dates of use continue.  Toulouse (Bottle Makers and their Marks) stated “1844 to 1857” but also relates that this same firm name was applied to a glass manufacturer still in business as late as 1928.   Dates of usage for this mark are very unclear (to me) and I would propose a very wide possible date range extending from the 1860s into the late 1920s. (Most likely, perhaps 1880-1910).  More research certainly needs to be done on this group of companies and the marks they used.  Also, see K.B.L.T. and K. B. Ltd.
      • J.  K. W.    or   J. K. T……………. John Kilner (Wakefield) ; John Kilner (Thornhill Lees)…………see entries above.
      • J. L. & Co. ; J. L. & Co. LTD. …………………John Lumb & Co. (1870s-1905), name changed slightly to: John Lumb & Company, Limited. (1905-1937), Castleford, Yorkshire, England. Became part of United Glass, Ltd, in 1937. After 1937 their mark was “U G B” positioned over an “L”.
      • Johns Bros. W. Va……….Johns Brothers, Fairmont, West Virginia (1893-1907). This company was a successor to the Fairmont Bottle & Fruit Jar Company which was incorporated in 1892. Johns Bros. operated up to about 1907, at which time it became known as the Fairmont Bottle Company (1907-1912). See JB.
      • J.P.F……………..Pitkin Glass Works, Manchester, Connecticut (1783-1830). Appears on flask probably made circa 1815-1825. Initials presumably stand for Joseph P. Foster, manager at Pitkin.
      • J. R. Watkins Co. ………………………… Please see J. R. Watkins Co. page here for more information.
      • J. W. & B…………………John Wyeth & Brother, Philadelphia, PA, later based in New York (1860-1929). Several types and sizes of pharmaceutical, druggist and chemical bottles made for this huge drug firm are known. They might be found with the J.W. & B. mark,  or “WYETH”, or “John Wyeth & Bro” markings. Most of the bottles with these embossings probably date from the 1880s-1910s era. The actual glass manufacturer(s) of the various Wyeth bottles are not known to me at this time.

        K mark on base of ringed peppersauce bottle, possibly product of Kearns.

        K mark on base of ringed peppersauce bottle, possibly product of Kearns.

      • K (on base of early hand-made bottles and jars)……………………. possibly George W. Kearns & Company, Zanesville, Ohio (c.1860-1868) and/or Kearns, Herdman & Gorsuch, Zanesville, Ohio (1868-1885).  Examples include wax sealer fruit jars and “ringed” peppersauce bottles. In the case of some black glass ale, beer or wine bottles of apparent British manufacture, which are sometimes marked with a single letter on the base, this “K” might stand for one of the Kilner glass companies.  NOTE: More recent machine-made utilitarian packer bottles or jars with a “K” on the base would definitely indicate a different glassmaker, possibly Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation (also, see next entry).
      • K (on the base of modern-era clear laboratory & scientific glassware including bottles, beakers, etc)……………… Kimble Glass Company, later Kimble-Kontes, now (since 2007) Kimble Chase Inc. (part of the Gerresheimer Group), Vineland, New Jersey.  Kimble Chase produces borosilicate glass under the trade name KIMAX (similar to PYREX). See “K in a hexagon”, below.
      • K (on upscale tableware, novelty glass, pressed glass, some reproduction pattern glass, but not utilitarian bottles)………….John E. Kemple Glass Works, see next two entries.

        Kruger Glass - K with baby logo. (Photo courtesy of Heather Myers)

        Kruger Glass – K with baby logo. (Photo courtesy of Heather Myers)

      • K and image of a baby or small child peering from behind the letter…………… as seen on the base of clear glass jars/canisters  with baby-related motifs.  Kruger Glass, Germany, circa 1930s-1950s??   No detailed info on this company, but if you have information on this mark, the company and the products they made or distributed, please write!
      • K9 or K-9……………………….Knox Bottle Company, originally based in Knox, PA. Mark seen on milk bottles. See “K in a keystone”.
      • K over a “W”…………………..Wheaton, mark appears on various items made by Wheaton, Millville, NJ, after they purchased the molds previously used by John E. Kemple Glass Works. See next entry.
      • K in a circle………..Seen on ornamental and reproduction glassware, novelties, tableware: John E. Kemple Glass Works, East Palestine, Ohio (1945-1956) & Kenova, West Virginia (1956-1970). See next entry.
      • K in a circle……………As seen on glass lenses, lamp globes and other industrial glassware: Kopp Glass Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1926-to date).
      • K in a hexagon………….Kimble Glass Company, Vineland, New Jersey (1905-to date). Plant was purchased by Owens-Illinois in 1946. Kimble acquired Kontes Glass Company to form Kimble/Kontes circa 1982. Now known as Kimble Chase Inc. (after 2007), a subsidiary of the Gerresheimer Group, Dusseldorf, Germany. The K-in-a-hexagon mark was first used beginning in 1947, according to U.S. Patent and Trademark records, and the last re-issue was in 1990…….no ending year date is given. Most (if not all) recent glassware (specialty laboratory glassware such as beakers) made by Kimble Chase may carry a plain K instead of a K inside a hexagon. (See “K” entries).

        Knox Glass Bottle Company - K in a keystone logo.

        Knox Glass Bottle Company – K inside a keystone logo.

      • K in a keystone…………Knox Glass Bottle Company/Knox Glass Associates, Knox, Pennsylvania and other plant locations (1917-1968). Mark introduced circa 1932(?)  Knox operated a number of glass manufacturing plants over many years during the 20th century. Sometimes there is no discernible letter inside the keystone shape. Originally, the main Knox glass plant at Knox, PA used the “K in a keystone” and most, if not all, of their other factory locations had a different letter inside the keystone. However, most of the Knox factories are believed to have used the “K in a keystone” mark after about 1953, on up to 1968 when Knox was bought out by Glass Containers Corporation. For much more in-depth information on the Knox family of plants and the marks they used, please check out these two articles written by Bill Lockhart: and .
      • Karl Hutter / New York………..see “K H” mark.
      • K B L T……………Kilner Bros. Limited, Thornhill Lees, West Yorkshire, England. (Dates of mark usage uncertain; perhaps 1870s up to 1922; see next entry).
      • K B Ltd……………Kilner Bros. Limited, Thornhill Lees, West Yorkshire, England, United Kingdom. Dates of mark uncertain. Perhaps 1870s-1922. Please see webpage here with brief information on the Kilner Bros factory at Thornhill Lees.
      • K.C.G.W. (On glass electrical insulators) …………………………..King City Glass Works, Fairmount, Indiana (1890-1897).
      • Kensington Glass Works……….Kensington Glass Works, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (c.1804-1833). Full name seen embossed on many historical flasks. This factory was later known as the Dyottville Glass Works.
      • Kerr………………see webpage on Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation.
      • Keystone shape with a letter inside (such as K, L, J, M, T, etc). Most, although not all, of the “letter inside a keystone” marks were used by glass factories owned/controlled by the Knox Glass Bottle Company. Check under the individual letter, but also please check the “K in a keystone” mark entry, above on this page.
      • K-G ……………….Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Company, Zanesville, Ohio (1886-1937). Years this mark was used are not completely certain, but perhaps circa 1910-1937. See next entry, also see “K” entry, above.
      • K.G.B.CO…………..Kearns-Gorsuch Bottle Company, Zanesville, Ohio (1886-1937). Monogram seen on fruit jar. Initials also appear spelled out and are known embossed on the base of a pickle bottle. A number of Hutchinson-style  soda bottles are found with this mark, and they generally date in the 1890s-1910 period. This mark presumably dates before 1920, when Hazel-Atlas bought the plant. Also, see “K” and “K-G” marks.
      • K.G.CO…………….unproven, but very possibly Kentucky Cooperative Glass Company, Louisville Kentucky (1897-1898). On some bottles, these initials may stand for another company. Kentucky Cooperative went into receivership in 1898 and was reorganized to become the “Louisville Glass Company” (also called the Louisville Bottle Manufacturing Company), a short-lived venture that ceased by 1901.
      • K.G.W.CO………………Kentucky Glass Works Company, Louisville, Kentucky (1879-1887). Another minor variant of the “KY.G.W.CO.” mark. See KY.G.W. entry.
      • K H (with various numbers)……….Karl Hutter, the inventor of the “Hutter porcelain stopper” patented in 1893 which was used on many beer bottles (and still is, using plastic instead of porcelain, on several modern bottles such as Grolsch), evidently had large numbers of bottles manufactured for him during the c. 1880s-1910 era. These bottles were made by one or several unidentified glasshouses in the New York/New Jersey area. A good possibility for one source would be Brookfield Glass Company (Bushwick Glass Works).
      • K.H.& G……………..Kearns, Herdman & Gorsuch, Zanesville, Ohio (1868-1885). See “K” mark.
      • K. H. & G. Z. O……………………….Kearns, Herdman & Gorsuch, Zanesville, Ohio (1868-1885). This mark is usually arranged in a circle on the base of aqua-colored hand-blown fruit jars and bottles, and sometimes the mark is misunderstood as  “Z. O. K. H. & G.” or  “O. K. H. & G. Z.” or a similar string of letters.  Seen on the bottom of “coffin” or “shoofly” whiskey flasks.  Also, please see “K” mark.
      • Knoxall………….Brand name used by Knox Glass Company for a line of bottles.  See “K in a keystone”.
      • Knox & McKee……….Knox & McKee, Wheeling, Virginia (now WV) (1824-1829). Full name seen on very rare historical flasks. Initials “K & M” were reported by Knittle, but are not confirmed to exist on any bottles.
      • KOPP………………Kopp Glass Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1926-to date). Manufacturer of a wide variety of industrial glass items such as signal lenses, railroad lantern globes, colored glass light covers (airfield boundary lenses), etc.
      • KPP inside an oval……………….Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation (Kerr Packaging Products Division). This mark is most familiar to glass telephone insulator collectors, appearing on a few (such as the CD 155 style, marked  “Armstrong DP 1”) that were made in the c.1969-1973 period at Millville, NJ.  However, also reported on base of a flat clear glass liquor flask.

        K-R Backwards on Strap-side flask

        K.R. (backwards) on strap-side flask

      • K. R. (backwards, embossed twice, crudely marked on base of aqua “strap-side” whiskey flask, circa 1860-1880 era; an example was dug in the Louisville area)……………… unknown manufacturer.  There is a chance this might have stood for Krack & Reed, one of the firms who operated the Louisville Glass Works.
      • KY.G.CO……………Kentucky Glass Works Company, Louisville, Kentucky (1879-1887)

        KY.G.W. mark on base of amber beer bottle.

        KY.G.W. mark on base of amber beer bottle.

      • KY.G.W…………….Kentucky Glass Works Company, Louisville, Kentucky (1879-1887). Maker of many types of utilitarian containers, usually found in aqua or amber glass. Base photo of a beer bottle is shown, right. For more info on this company, please click here.
      • KY.G.W.CO…………………Kentucky Glass Works Company, Louisville, Kentucky (1879-1887). Another variant of the above mark, seen on quite a few bottles and jars.
      • K X ………………………seen on an amber jar base shard, circa 1960s or 1970s. No info on maker, though it might stand for one of the Knox Bottle company plants, or maybe it is just a mold letter (mold identifier).
      • L (crudely formed letter, on the base of handmade beer bottles, circa 1880s-1890s)………… unidentified manufacturer.
      • L………………….Latchford Glass Company, Los Angeles, California (this mark used c.1957-c.1989).  Julian Toulouse, in Bottle Makers and their Marks, published 1971, on page 314 writes the plain L was used  “Possibly 1925 to 1938, definitely 1957 to date”. I have doubts that the W. J. Latchford Glass Company used the “plain L” in the earlier period, but perhaps they did so.  Latchford eventually became part of Anchor Glass.  See also “L in an oval”.
      • L with 2-digit number to the right…….Laurens Glass Company, Laurens, South Carolina (1910-1996). Mark seen on the base of “Longlife Mason” jars.
      • L-52 or L52………….Lamb Glass Company, Mt. Vernon, Ohio (c. 1920-1964?). This mark seems to be found only on milk bottles. Lamb Glass made many of the earlier “Babyface” milk bottles in clear glass, which are now being reproduced (usually in brightly colored glass such as cobalt blue) by factories in China & Taiwan.  Presumably, the “52” was merely a glass plant identifier. See also “L.G.CO.”
      • L in an oval (or a circle, somewhat horizontally flattened, seen on bottles)……….W.J.Latchford Glass Company, Los Angeles, California (1925-1938); this became the Latchford-Marble Glass Company (1938-1956); and then, Latchford Glass Company (1957-c.1989). Mark was first used approximately 1925, although during the “Latchford-Marble” era, the mark “LM in an oval” was used instead.  See next entry.
      • L in an oval (seen on glass telephone insulators)……………Lynchburg Glass Corporation  (1923-1925).
      • L (in cursive script)……….Libbey Glass, Inc., Toledo, Ohio (1888-to date) ,  see this page.
      • L in a keystone……..Lincoln Glass Bottle Company, Lincoln, Illinois (1942-1952). Plant was sold to the Obear-Nester Glass Co. in 1952.
      • L in a shield……….W.J.Latchford Glass Company, Los Angeles, California (1925-1938). Seen on base of Puritas water bottle.
      • L in a square……….Lincoln Container Corporation, Lincoln, Illinois (1953-19??). Plant owned by Obear-Nestor Glass Company, but operated under this company name.

        Leone -L in a broken square

        Leone Industries

      • L in an unconnected square (shown)………………..Leone Industries, Bridgeton, New Jersey (1966-to date). The mark is seen quite often, usually placed on the “heel” of modern-era bottles, jelly jars, etc. found on current grocery store shelves.  Leone also purchased/controlled the former Reed Glass Company, later Castle-Hanson Corporation factory at Rochester, New York for some period of time, exact dates unclear.   (See “R in a triangle” mark, “C-H” marks).  Leone was purchased in 2012 to become part of the Ardagh Group, but is apparently still using their own mark (as of 2015).
      • Lancaster Colony Corporation, based in Columbus, OH (1961-to date). Holding company, “umbrella” corporation over a number of manufacturers of various products. See Indiana Glass, LCC mark.
      • Lancaster Glass Works…………….Lancaster Glass Works, Lancaster, New York (1849-1904).  This glassworks operated under a number of different firm / company names over a long period of time. Their most well-known product would probably be their marked blob top soda bottles from the 1850s-1870s period, found in aqua, various shades of blue including cobalt, green and other colors. This factory evidently was idle for several years between 1904 and 1907, and from city directory sources was again in business for a short while in the c.1907-1909 time period, although a historical plaque erected at the factory site makes no mention of this.

        LB - Long Beach Glass Company

        Long Beach Glass Company

      • LB ………………..Long Beach Glass Company, Long Beach, California (1920-1933). This mark appears in the form of a large “L” with a smaller “B” sitting in the “lap” of the L.  Thanks to Glenn Pavlovic for the picture of this mark!
      • Lbg…………………..Lynchburg Glass Works, Lynchburg, Virginia (1919-1922). See Lynchburg Glass Corporation  page.
      • LCC (stylized mark)…………………. Lancaster Colony Corporation, based in Lancaster, Ohio. Indiana Glass Company was acquired by Lancaster Glass Corporation in 1957, and with several other glass companies, Lancaster Colony Corporation was formed circa 1961.  See “Indiana Glass” entry on this page.  Also, see this page for information on the popular Indiana Glass “hen on nest” dishes.
      • L.C.& R.CO…………….Lampton, Crane & Ramey Company, Louisville, KY (c.1895-c.1915). This firm was a dealer in paints, oils and varnishes. They apparently offered lettered glass bottles as part of their product line (many firms of this type offered window glass and glass bottles in addition to their other products), and since they were not an actual bottle manufacturer, the bottles were made by an unidentified glassworks. (Just a wild guess……….no proof!…… possibly Illinois Glass Company??)
      • Leotric……………………………..Brand name embossed across the face of certain fruit jars,  these were evidently made by John Gayner/Gayner Glass Works, Salem, N.J. (1885-1898/1898-1937) and Cumberland Glass Works (or Company) /Cumberland Glass Manufacturing Co., Bridgeton, New Jersey (1882-1896/1896-1920). The trademark “LEOTRIC” (#43288) was said to have been in use starting in September, 1903, according to trademark documents. (Info from Alice Creswick’s The Fruit Jar Works,  Vol. 1, 1995).
      • Leo Ward 1995 (or other year, hand-etched on the base of art glass bird paperweights)………….. Terra Studios, Fayetteville, Arkansas. . (Birds marked “Ron Ray” were made by another operation in Fayetteville: Phoenix Studios).

        LF in a diamond - on base of tooled-lip "Strapside" flask. (Picture courtesy of Jimmy Bray)

        LF in a diamond – on base of tooled-lip “strap side” flask. (Picture courtesy of Jimmy Bray)

      • L F inside a diamond…………Unknown. Reported by Jimmy Bray, this mark appears on the base of a light aqua tooled-lip strap-side flask, probably dating from the 1885-1910 time period.
      • L.F.& Co………..Unknown. Initials appear on the front of a “Shield with Clasped Hands” pictorial whiskey flask, circa 1865-1870.
      • LG (along lower heel of soda bottles, always embedded within a brief string of numbers)………..Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana (this code indicates production from their Loogootee, Indiana glass plant). See Graham.
      • L.G. ………………Liberty Glass Company, Sapulpa, Oklahoma (1918-c.1995), mark used c.1924-c.1936. Note that periods are used.
      • L-G………………..Liberty Glass Company, Sapulpa, Oklahoma (1918-c.1995), mark used c.1934-c.1967.  Note that mark includes a dash.
      • L G………………..Liberty Glass Company, Sapulpa, Oklahoma (1918-c.1995), mark used c.1955- c.1995.  Dash removed. (NOTE: There is a considerable overlap of the time periods during which these three mark variations were used (L.G. / L-G / L G) so careful scrutiny for an accompanying date code is advised. This information on approximate dates of use courtesy of author/researcher Bill Lockhart.) The Liberty Glass Company factory became part of the Ball-Foster Container Corporation in about 1995,  Saint-Gobain Containers in 2000, now (after c. 2014) operating as part of the Ardagh Group.    Also, check the L.G.CO. mark page for info on other factories that used a somewhat similar mark.
      • L.G.CO…………….Several factories used this marking. Please click here for more information.
      • L.G.CO. arranged around a star with the words “ACME/Trademark 1893″…………Lamont Glass Company, Trenton & New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, Canada (1890-1898). Seen on the face of fruit jars. Also see the “L.G.CO.” mark webpage.
      • L G W………………Laurens Glass Works, Laurens, South Carolina  (1910-1996). Plants also operated in Henderson, North Carolina (opened 1957) and Ruston, Louisiana. The Henderson and Ruston plants are now part of Saint-Gobain Containers. Laurens Glass Works was a prolific manufacturer of soda bottles. The “L G W” is often seen on the bases of these soda bottles, along with mold , date, and/or  style code numbers.  Often, the L G W mark (as used by Laurens) is situated between numbers (date codes) such as:  “6 L G W 1”.  That would indicate a bottle made in 1961.  NOTE: In some instances certain older (pre-1900) bottles or flasks with the marking “L & W” (indicating Lorenz and Wightman) are misunderstood to read “L. G. W.”, and because of an entry in Toulouse’s Bottle Makers and their Marks, this mark is believed to stand for Louisville Glass Works. I do not believe Louisville Glass Works ever marked ANY items with the initials “L G W”. If you have information that might show otherwise, please feel free to contact me with details.  Also, see the “L.G.CO.” mark webpage.
      • L.G.WKS…………….probably Lockport Glass Works, Lockport, New York. Seen on the heel of blob/squat soda bottle from the 1870s or 1880s.
      • LKYGW or  L K Y G W ……………….this is a mark that appears in “Bottle Makers and their Marks” by Julian Toulouse (1971), purported to have been used by Kentucky Glass Works. I don’t believe that it actually exists, as such, and I prefer to brand it as a “fantasy mark” (nonexistent).  I think that someone communicated to him concerning a mark they saw, which they abbreviated within their correspondence, thus creating a misunderstanding of the exact appearance of the mark. If you have any info to show otherwise, (as I would actually like to  be proven wrong 🙂 ) please contact me through this website!  Also, please see these entries: LGW,  LGCO.,  Louisville Ky Glass Works,  KYGW,  KYGWCO , and S.G.W LOU KY.  Also, see webpage on the Kentucky Glass Works Company.
      • LM…………………Latchford-Marble Glass Company, Los Angeles, California. See “L in an oval” mark.
      • LM in an oval……….Latchford-Marble Glass Company, Los Angeles, California. See “L in an oval” mark.
      • Lockport N.Y. ……………………………….Lockport Glass Works, Lockport, New York. Seen on heel of soda bottles probably dating from the late 1860s or the 1870s.
      • Lockport Glass Works………………..Lockport Glass Works, Lockport, New York (1843-c.1908). Factory name is found spelled out on the front of historical flasks and soda bottles.  Most of the flasks probably date from the 1840s into the 1860s.  The blob-type soda bottles most likely date from the 1850s-1870s period.  The glass works was operated by several owners/firms over the years. Francis Hitchins operated the company circa 1850-1866, and some bottles made during that time period were marked “Glass From F. Hitchins Factory, Lockport, N.Y”.   Alonzo Mansfield bought this factory in 1872 and it then became known as the Mansfield Glass Works, although the factory may have unofficially been called the Lockport Glass Works or Lockport Glass Manufacturing Company for several years afterward, at least into the 1880s if not later.  The works continued in operation until about 1908. Note: Another glass factory which may or may not have been related was “Lockport Glass Company”, reportedly in business from c.1900 to 1919. If you have more info on the history of these companies, please contact me! Also, please see the “L.G.CO.” page.
      • Louisville Ky. Glass Works………..Louisville Glass Works, Louisville, Kentucky (1855-1873). Factory name is seen embossed on several types of whiskey flasks, including plain, strapsided, eagle, scroll (“violin”) flasks, and several vertically-ribbed types. A very rare fruit jar, a type apparently made to be used with a cork closure, is also known with this marking. Please see Louisville Glass and my “Louisville Glass Factories of the 19th Century, Part One” article link on that page; and the Glass Insulator Factories information page.  Also, see Kentucky Glass Works Company  , Falls City Glass Company  and Southern Glass Works pages for some info on later factories in Louisville.
      • LOU. KY. G. W. ………………….. This embossed marking (interspersed with four crossed lines), is listed as appearing, in a circular formation, on the base of a wax sealer-type fruit jar, according to Dick Roller in The Standard Fruit Jar Reference (1983). He lists this jar as #693.5 which is described on page 195. However, that listing is in error. This jar is not a product of the Louisville Glass Works, as the actual embossing is “S. G. W. LOU. KY.” Because of the placement of the crossed lines, the “S” is either invisible or partly obliterated on examples of the jar, creating confusion as to the exact order and interpretation of the letters. Actually made by Southern Glass Works, Louisville, Kentucky (1877-c.1885), a factory in operation several years after the Louisville Glass Works had ceased production. See “SOU G W”, “SOU G WS”, “S. G. CO.” and “S. G. W. LOU. KY.” and related marks.
      • LP (along lower heel of soda bottles, within brief  series of numbers)……………Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana. This code represents the Loogootee, Indiana glass plant. See Graham.         LP in a keystone - Pennsylvania Bottle Company, Wilcox, Pennsylvania (1940-1952)
      • LP in a keystone (shown)…………Pennsylvania Bottle Company, Wilcox, Pennsylvania (1940-1952)
      • LS ……… see entry “LP” above; see Graham.
      • Luxfer / Patented (along with several patent dates from the 1880s and 1890s)……..embossing found on glass prism “vault lights” (triangularly shaped glass tiles) used in various construction/lighting applications, sold by Luxfer Prism Company.  See Ian Mackey’s site with more info here:  Apparently these were manufactured by Jeannette Glass Company, Jeannette, Pennsylvania.
      • L & W…………..Lorenz and Wightman, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1862-1874). A prolific bottle producer. This mark is known on a very large variety of bottles and fruit jars. Toulouse claims the mark may have been used from 1851 to 1860, and then again from 1862 up to 1871, which is the year that Lorenz died. However, Lorenz and Wightman was not officially dissolved until 1874. I know of certain bottles that exist with the L&W marking that definitely date as late as 1874.
      • LYRIC………………Illinois Glass Company, Alton, Illinois, Gas City, Indiana and other locations. Trademark seen on the base of prescription/druggist bottles.   Please see this page on the Lyric bottles.

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107 Responses to Glass Bottle Marks – 3

  1. Seth Miller says:

    I have a beer bottle with a K in a diamond on the base. The beer bottle is a Baltimore loop Seal finish. Brand is Consumers Brewing Co. Erie, PA.

    • David says:

      Hi Seth,
      Thanks for your post and the info. I don’t know what the “K inside a diamond” stands for, but presumably it would be a glass bottle manufacturer. Perhaps a reader will have a clue to help us out on identification!
      Best regards, David

  2. Bonnie taylor says:

    I have a pepper shaker that belonged to my ggparents, handed to my grandparents, then to me. It’s a 1893 FB, down below the B is a 1 . It’s in excellent shape.

  3. Kurtis Runyon says:

    I have 3 Jim Davis (I assume James E. Davis) Glass Bird weights. I am from Indiana, as is many generations of my family. These birds all have the date of 1997 on the bottom. I am happy to share photos for reference. I guess he made them past the 80s.

    • David says:

      Kurtis, thanks a lot for the pics and information. [He sent them to me directly by email]. I have added one of your glass bird paperweight base pics to the alphabetical listings under “Jim Davis”.
      Take care,

  4. Kylan Ralissa Bellomy says:

    My husband and I found a few old bottle while mushroom hunting and I can’t find the last one anywhere online. I was able to figure out that the ahk on the bottom stands for a company out of Los Angeles but looking on their website I couldn’t find this exact bottle or any thing like it . It also has the numbers 2010-H below the ahk( I should have mentioned the ahk is on the bottom of the bottle but I would say at one side as the numbers followed by the H are down below on the pther sodeand there is another number number 2 to the right of the other numbers). Does anyone know where I can find some information on it such as what it was used for or how old it is exactly?

  5. Lori A Jones says:

    Help, I think mark is a diamond with an oval. Also has the number 2, 62 on one end and 1939 on the other. It a large (5 gallon) blue-ish colored glass wide mouth jar with handle and lid.

    • David says:

      Lori, it sounds like a pickle jar made by Owens-Illinois Glass Company. The “1939” may be the year the mold for the jar was made, or the jar itself. I’m not sure which would be right.
      best regards, David

  6. Daniel Smith says:

    who can help me identify a pop bottle from Glenshaw with an N and 1500-3 on the bottom

  7. Tony Nuccetelli says:

    I am trying to find information on Capital Glass Works in Washington PA. I found an ornate soda bottle shaped like a coke bottle that held 5 and 1/2 ounces. I can find not information on the company on the internet. Capital Glass Works is marked label size on the bottle and the City and state Washington PA below that. It has seams marks so it looks to be molded. It is marked in large letters on he bottom J.S. it has a number on the top of he bottle neck 26 and a diamond mark. Thanks.

  8. Steve says:

    Hey Dave
    Just found a circa 1910 pharmacy with base marking “L W T CO, New York”
    As always, any info greatly appreciated.
    Thanks, Man

  9. Curtis says:

    I found an old glass bottle it has the markings 64 on the bottom with a line under it and on the front bottom side it has w I think a small D or comma maybe followed by 86G7. Can anybody tell me what this is

  10. Jeremy Kemp says:

    The FVF mark is actually FMF, and stands for Food Manufacturers Federation. Established (I think) around 1913, it changed it’s name to the Food and Drink Federation in the 1960s. The mark turns up commonly on the bases of both glass and stoneware jars, especially around the 1920s – 40s.

  11. Ray c says:

    Hi David, I found a Hazel Atlas jar today. It has an A under H and k 216 on a round bottom then it has 8 flat sides going up to a tapered round you know is this an old ketchup bottle and what year it might be?

    • David says:

      Hi Ray,
      I’m not positive from your description, but let me attach a link to a typical ketchup bottle. This one was made by Owens Bottle Company (O inside a square was their mark, embossed on the bottom). Many glass companies (including Owens Bottle Co, Fairmount Glass Company, Illinois Glass Company, Anchor Hocking, and others) made these same general types of glass ketchup bottles, and the style changed very little over a long period of time. They are one of the most frequently found kinds of bottles in old dumps, from the 1900s to the 1950s or later. They usually have either 8, 10, 12 or 16 facets (vertical panels or “flutes”) down the sides.
      Take care, David

  12. Bonnie Mayo says:

    Hi there. I love your site and frequently use it to help cross reference information for historical archaeological research. I’ve noticed that you attribute the plain “L” maker’s mark to the more recent Latchford Glass Company. This is in direct contradiction to what Bill Lockhart of the “Bottle Research Group” has compiled about this mark in their “Manufacturer’s Marks and Other Logos on Glass Containers” article. They attribute that mark to the earlier W.J. Latchford Glass Co. (ca. 1925-1939). I just wondered if you are aware of this and if so what reference has informed you that it belongs to the former? Thanks, and keep up the good work!

    • David says:

      I just re-edited slightly my entry for the “plain L” mark as used by Latchford. Please check that entry. Julian Toulouse (Bottle Makers and their Marks, 1971) stated that the “plain L” (not enclosed in an oval) was DEFINTTELY used by Latchford after 1957, but was uncertain if they had also used it in the early (1925-1939) period. I tend to follow his direction on this particular mark. The page you mention
      has a slight error (at the time I viewed it), as I believe there is an accidental omission of the plain “L” mark as being used in the later time period (1957-1989). In addition, Toulouse indicated the “L in an oval” was also used in the 1957 to 1989 period concurrently with the “plain L”. Hope this helps!

  13. nancy ciano says:

    Hi, I have a clear glass wine decanter with top. There are some flower etching around the base. It has an L in a diamond on the bottom. Looking for info. It probably belonged to my Grandmother who would be 120 now! Thank you.

    • David says:

      Nancy, I don’t know anything about the “L in a diamond” mark on your decanter. I did find a brief online reference to a clear glass serving tray with (presumably?) the same mark. That tray looks modern, perhaps 1970s-1990s. Perhaps a reader can help with more info.

  14. Richard says:

    It is difficult to find where on your site a person can email or message you directly, could not find, So will just leave a comment here.

    This is regarding your page on FAROY candle holder items. Something does not make sense, the patent number 204,556 was for patents granted only between 1875-80, not 1975 as your info. claims. I saw your cobalt blue candle holder you show and say it has this patent number. I also have same exact candle holder with same patent number, in vaseline glass. So I wonder how can these be modern items if the patent number is for between 1875-80 only?? I admit the glass has more of a newish look than glass actually made in that time period. I suppose the patent is very old and the glass found today is circa 1960s-70s? Or are the items with that patent number really that old- circa late 1870s? More research.

    • David says:

      Hi Richard,
      I have mentioned this in many replies posted in the “comments” section, but it bears repeating: My email address is listed on the right-hand bottom corner of every page on this site. Perhaps that text isn’t easily visible when viewing on a smartphone? Because of the many queries and comments I get, I cannot reply to all of them. (Not enough time or energy). I actually work a regular job, and this website is just a “spare time” activity in my “other life”.
      Concerning the patent number 204,556……. There are some frequent misunderstandings about these patent numbers and I can understand your confusion. Very simple……..there are TWO sets of patent numbers. You are referring to the “regular” patent numbers, also called “letters patent” or “utility patent” numbers. In that case the #204556 would fall in the year 1878 for a vehicle spring invention. Patent number “1” in that list was issued in 1836.
      However, the patent number 204,556 is a different type of patent known as a Design Patent. That series of numbers are on a much “smaller scale”.
      Many of the design patents can be found by searching “GOOGLE PATENTS” with the letter D placed in front of the number…… i.e. D204556.
      Hope this helps,

  15. William Latimer says:

    I found a clear glass bottle, says one gallon at the top A-9 near the bottom and has a keystone with the letter V in it. I’m assuming it’s a Knox bottle but haven’t found any reference to the V and was wondering if you could help. Thank you, Will

    • David says:

      William, I don’t know about that mark. Someone wrote to me some years back and asked the same question about a flat wine flask that appears to be marked with a “V in a keystone”. It is marked “ONE PINT” on the lower heel on both flattened sides, and WINE on the base. There seems to be no information on the mark. I was wondering if the letter was actually intended to be a “U” but the mold engraver tooled the lower “notch” a bit too sharply in the mold and it ended up looking like a “V”. Just a thought……..I may be wrong. If you find out anything more, please let me know. Take care,

  16. Layne Brett says:

    I am trying to identify a bottle with 55 over LOU D2 55 under ( all in a circle) and the I believe the Duralas symbol to the right. The bottle is oval with a flat side ( a liquor bottle I assume ) I only have the bottom. I collect sea glass, make jewelry and “stained glass” window art. I like to identify the bottle bottoms in my art pieces. Any help would be appreciated. Any way to send a photo if needed?

    • David says:

      Hi Layne, it is a liquor bottle, made by Owens-Illinois Glass Company (Diamond and oval entwined with I mark). In the case of the markings on that particular bottle, the first “55” is a “liquor bottle permit number” assigned to their Huntington, WV plant. The second “55” is a date code for 1955 when the bottle was made. Please check out my page on Owens-Illinois for more info. Photos can be sent to my email address, which is listed at the bottom right of any page on my site. Hope this helps,

  17. Thomas Southard says:

    Hi David,

    Found on my property, we live in an old farmhouse built 1840, a glass bottle down near the water. It is clear and looks like an old drink bottle with no markings except on the bottom it has the letter H in a circle and on the side of the bottom rim it has H103. That is it, looks old. Could this be a Hemingray? We live in the Northern Neck of VA in White Stone. Thanks for your help.

    Tom S.

    • David says:

      Hi Thomas,
      I’m not sure, but I have doubts it is a Hemingray product. Can you email me pics of the bottle and the mark? My email is listed at the bottom right-hand corner of any page on this site.
      Best regards,

  18. Keith says:

    Hi David-
    I have a gold-plated (somewhat worn) Coke bottle that was given to my family from a great, great uncle many years ago. Although I’m sketchy on the details, my uncle was a designer at Liberty Glass in Sapulpa, OK. Before his passing (40+ years ago), he gave his personal collection (4 gold-plated bottles) to those close to him. There was something said about these 4 bottles being the first four of a new run. My uncle was James Greenwood and through research, I have found he had a copyright or two on milk bottles years before.
    The bottle has the following on the base of the bottle:
    “Jackson, Miss.”
    No doubt, it appears to have been made at Liberty Glass in Sapulpa, OK. Any additional insight you may have would be greatly appreciated as this is something the family would love to know more about.
    Thanks in advance.

    • David says:

      Keith, thank you for your post. Interesting information! I’m sorry but I don’t have any insight on your bottle, although I would assume the “68” is a date code for 1968.
      Take care,

  19. Hi David, I have a small amber bottle with numbers 1414 on bottom then a 6 under the 1414 with a raised dot to the left. any information will be appreciated. Thank you Debby

  20. Bethany Crenshaw says:

    I am trying to date a bottle from the early 1900s I believe and also find who manufactured it. It is a larger mouth clear rounded rectangular bottle with an early screw top, and the bottom has PL inside what looks like a shield, with a pitchfork and a number 3 under it. I can’t find any information about a PL company.
    Thanks, Bethany

    • David says:

      I don’t know what the PL stands for. This mark is seen on various bottles and has been reported to me several times over the years. If any readers of this website know, please advise!
      Best regards,

      • Brian J Drummond says:

        Hi Bethany & David. I’m not sure I can clear this up, but I can shed some light for you to review. I have a bottle that also has the PL inside a shield with a pitchfork. However, there is not a 3 under it, but rather a 2 outside the shield towards the lower point and off to the left side. The interesting thing about this bottle is it has the words “Hospital Dispensing Unit” on it, and the cap is also present. This is where I hope I can help. On the outer rim of the cap there is “Lithographers In USA” and the H over A mark of Hazel-Atlas. On top of the cap is printed This Bottle Admits a Tablespoon, and in the center says Shake Well. I hope this information helps answer some questions. Best Wishes, Brian

        • David says:

          Hi Brian,
          Thank you for the information! That info also raises more questions, but I think we can say that the “PL inside a Shield” mark probably stands for the initials of an unidentified pharmaceutical supply company. Of course, your actual bottle was manufactured by Hazel-Atlas, but it wouldn’t surprise me if other bottles found with the PL mark might be products of a different glass manufacturer. Often, large distributors and drug manufacturers switched glass bottle supply companies, depending on the current wholesale prices they were charged for bottles made for them. I am sure someone will come up with what the “PL” stands for!
          Take care,

  21. PK says:

    Found a clear bottle bottom, not the whole bottle. there is a diamond shape in the center and a 3 below it. Would this have been from Diamond Glass Company?

    • David says:

      PK, your bottle was made by either Diamond Glass Company of Royersford, PA OR Illinois Glass Company, Alton, IL. If the diamond is absolutely PLAIN with no trace of letter or number inside, it was probably made by Diamond. Look carefully, as often a letter “I” or a number or letter combo may be just faintly visible which would indicate Illinois Glass Company (See my page on the “I inside a diamond” mark). Sometimes it is very difficult to be sure!

  22. Lynda A Vidas says:

    I have what looks to be a jelly jar. The bottom of the jar says FRANCE followed by a small oval and then the date 1861 or if read the other way 1981. It also has VMC and then the numbers 32,4c1. The glass has a screw threads and cathedral window design around the glass. I sure would love to know something about this jar. The jar takes neither a wide mouth lid or small mouth lid. It is just a tad under a wide mouth lid.

  23. Roger says:

    What glass company made the embossed 1989 Coca-Cola 1923 commemorative bottles? The bottles are all side embossed similar to “89-10-14-JG”, where 89 is the year of manufacture, and JG appears to represent the glass manufacturer. But what does JG stand for?

    • David says:

      Roger, I don’t know. Perhaps a glass company outside the United States?

      • Roger says:

        Yes, I had considered Mexico, but current Google searches (in 2016) haven’t brought up anything for me. If the company has changed it’s name or trademark, or gone out of business, it’s harder to find that information.

  24. Kirk Miller says:

    I found a pair of green depression juice glasses with AKG on the bottom. It is in a half circle similar to a monogram. Any idea of manufacturer?

  25. MaryJane Melton says:

    The bottle I have is clear glass, 9″ tall. There are grape clusters hanging from vines with four leaves on two sides of the bottle. The mark on the bottom looks like a ‘c’ connected to another ‘c’ which loops around and becomes the top of the letter ‘P’.

  26. John Chandler says:

    I would like to inquiry about a small jar that appears to be an ink well, not sure though.
    It is square with a short neck and a metal cap that has a small rim on bottom. 1 and 1/2 inches tall by 1 an 1/4 inches wide both ways. It is clear glass with two rims running around it and has a metallic blue material still inside. It has a stamp on the bottom of it in a circle pressed into the bottom with ” K K ” and ” PAID ” under it.
    Can you tell me anything about this or direct me to the correct place? Thank you!
    John C.

    • David says:

      John, I have no information on it. Perhaps a reader will land on this site who can shed light on it.

    • Weston says:

      I don’t see how to make my own reply, so I will just comment on this one. I have a bottle embossed “Ramey L.C. & R. Co.” on the base. I see it is an unknown glass mark. Does anyone have more information on it by now? If it helps, it is on the base of a bottle embossed “Ingram Drug Co. Thomasville, GA”. (A small prescription pharmacy med).

      • David says:

        Hi Weston,
        At the present time I haven’t updated my entry on that mark. It was evidently used by Lampton, Crane & Ramey Company, based in Louisville, KY, and that company dealt in paints, oils and varnishes. I believe they also (as part of their array of products offered) sold various bottles with the L.C.& R.CO marking on the base, which they offered as part of their general product line. The bottles would have actually been manufactured by some unidentified glassworks FOR LC&R, probably during the very late 1890s into the early 1900s. (Some paint,chemical and varnish distributors/jobbers of that general time period offered window glass and glass bottles as part of their product line, so in this instance they likely had an arrangement with a glass company to furnish marked bottles for them). Several druggist bottles are known with those initials on the bottom, and they are mostly from states in the South.

  27. Mike Amend says:

    Hi, I have a 4/5 brown quart bottle that has the Federal Law Forbids Sale, with the markings on the bottom of bottle as follows: D 10 56-46 with some diamond marking.
    Very similar to this one:

    What can you tell me about this bottle?

    • David says:

      Hi Mike, I keep getting queries about these amber liquor bottles made by Owens-Illinois Glass Company. Owens-Illinois made MILLIONS of these types of bottles, and the marking “D-10” is a distiller code. The “Diamond/oval/I mark was used by Owens-Illinois. The “56” is a liquor permit number assigned to Owens-Illinois, the “46” is a date code for 1946 which is the year the bottle was made. Please see my page on OWENS-ILLINOIS GLASS COMPANY, and also please scroll through the comments section (at the bottom of that page) where various liquor bottles and markings are discussed. Best regards, David

  28. Tara Jones says:

    David, I have a beautiful amber colored one gallon glass jug with the small handle on tthe side of the pour spout. On the bottom is has a sideways diamond, with what appears to be an “I” with a circle around it. Also has the numbers 4 4 1 around the diamond/circle with the I. I would love to send pictures so you can have a better look!

    • David says:

      Hi Tara, that is an OWENS-ILLINOIS bottle, most likely made for bleach or some other liquid chemical. Some of these were also used to contain vinegar, apple cider, soda syrup concentrate, and other edible liquids.
      Please see my page on Owens-Illinois Glass Company, and the comments section at the bottom where various bottles made by that company are discussed. You can also get an idea on possible age range by going to the site webpage which disusses the evolution of their own amber bleach bottle types. (Although your bottle probably did not contain Clorox, it may have contained a competing brand of bleach, and the bottle type may be somewhat similar). Their webpage showing various bottles over the years is here: . best regards, David

  29. David Mathers says:

    I know that some of the Pluto Water bottles were made by the Root Glass Company by the markings on some of the bottles. Does anyone know of any other manufacturers?

    • David says:

      I haven’t done any research on this question, but one idea to pass along…..Browse thru ebay auctions for Pluto bottles, and check the auction descriptions for markings seen/described (although some sellers may not include “minor” details such as this). Input from readers?

  30. Yogi Bear says:

    I have a bottle with “G. G. CO.” on the back heel and “79 / G” on the base. It’s a machine-made bottle for The Connecticut Breweries, but it looks like a blob…. Seams all the way up the finish; ring around base of finish; plate-mold; aqua, bubbles in glass. It confuses me.
    Ideas on who made it and when?

  31. Linda Podewils says:

    Just found this website. What a wealth of information. Luv it 🙂 Thank you so much!

  32. Geri Ayers says:

    I have what appears to be an old beer or possibly soda bottle, a dark amber color, seam on the bottle but top appears to be applied separately. It has an L and a B on the bottom (L over the B with a line between the two and a dot in the middle of the line). Any ideas on the origin?

  33. Jeannine says:

    Hello – I have an old Jelly Jar with just an “I” sans serif or a lower case “l” ??? the glass is an odd ball from my jelly jar collection – the glass itself is full of bubbles and seems cloudy (not etched form dishwasher). could also be a “|” pipe? or “_” underscore? but that seems too modern 🙂

    • David says:

      I’m sorry Jeannine, but the “1” (probably was meant to be a mold number) does not give any meaningful info on origin or age. Please see my article “Numbers seen on the base of jars and bottles”. Best regards,

  34. ubu says:

    Hi, maybe you could help me out.
    I have a bottle with the following markings on its bottom:

    VE(as one grapheme) A
    L58(the ‘L’ is lowercase and in cursive)

  35. Adam R. says:

    David –

    I have a skittle shaped or bowling pin shaped aquamarine-colored bottle. It is definitely a molded bottle (two seams up the sides completely to the lip). It has large and small bubbles. The inside base is tilted and not even with the outside base.
    No markings on the body. However, the bottom is marked:
    K B (something, maybe G, maybe <o) around the outside base
    T (just below)

    Any thoughts as to who manufactured the bottle, what it might have been used for, and possibly the age?

    Adam R.

    • David says:

      Hi Adam,
      Your bottle held some type of soda water or mineral water, was made by Kilner Bros, England, and probably dates from sometime in the 1880s-1920s.

      • Adam R. says:


        Thank you so much. The bottle was labeled by the seller as JL & Co bottle but, using your site and the markings on the bottle, I knew this could not be the case. This site is amazing with all of the detailed information. I will share this site with a number of my friends that collect both bottles and sea glass to help them identify their finds.

        Thank you again,
        Adam R.

  36. Dee says:

    I have some blue pieces the only I know on some them there a plastic label. Some trim in gold there no marking on some them. some say made in Poland, and Italy. I have a lot Chinese piece that we gift. Help can not read Chinese or Japanese. HELP……………………………….

  37. Crystal T. Smith says:

    J53S11 over LGW on the bottom of vintage canning jars with a diamond waffle pattern on all sides and on the fourth side a small square patch probably for a canning “label”. I have 4 of these, bought at a farm auction. The others have square patterns as opposed to diamond pattern. Two different ladies at the auction said these very antique. My husband and I are in our 40s and have never seen anything like them.

    • David says:

      Hello Crystal,
      Your jars, of course, were made at Laurens Glass Works, of Laurens, South Carolina. Those types of square-shaped fruit jars were made by a number of glass manufacturers, including the “giants” Owens-Illinois, Ball, Knox Glass, and others. They were most popular in the 1930s, 1940s and into the 1950s. Not so commonly seen nowadays, but they do show up fairly often on sites such as ebay and at antique malls. They are described with a number of terms including “waffle” and “grid pattern”. Some collectors of so-called “Hoosier jars” also include these in their jar collections.

  38. JJflynn-Gorman says:

    Thank you found something-The F on bottom of bottle stands for Fairmount Ind.that also had a Indianapolis this bottle says trade mark Indianapolis Ind.with the F for Fairmount glass. 1906 -1968.

    • David says:

      Hi JJflynn-Gorman, just read your second post. [This is in reply to a post submitted about an amber straight-sided Coca Cola bottle……original question appears indexed with replies/posts under Glass Bottle Marks: Glass Manufacturers’ Marks ]. Glad that you found some info to be useful. So we can assume the amber Coke bottle was probably made sometime between 1906 and circa 1920. I don’t know when Fairmount Glass switched over to machine-made production. As was common to many glass factories for a time, they may have made some of their bottles by machine AND some by hand concurrently.

    • SAL says:

      I am looking for the manufacture with the marking: BIG letter A, with a small G in the center of the A and a Small M at the bottom of the A, I think sits AGM??? But not sure..s
      Does anyone know???

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  40. Felicia Hale says:

    This page has helped me so much. I am a novice and thought I would never be able to find out what company made a bottle. But I just found “I in an oval” and with a date mark of 3 is it 1953 or 1957. I read somewhere to add the no to 1954 to get the correct year. I can see like you said the ground down area under the 3.

    • David says:

      Hi Felicia,
      I’m not sure where you read that (about adding a number to 1954), or about a “ground down area”… not positive what you are referring to. Perhaps it was something you read on another site, unconnected to
      In any case, I’m assuming the “3” is on the right-hand side of the logo, correct? Since the “I in an oval” mark was (in actual practice) phased in by Owens-Illinois Glass Company over a period of years on their bottles, probably from 1954 up to around 1959, (maybe even later on a few bottles since it took some time to re-tool all of the bottle molds in use), the “3” would have to stand for 1963 or later. The date code stands for the very last digit (or two digits) of the year a bottle was made. Theoretically, the “3” could indicate 1963 or 1973. I believe by the 1980s most O-I date codes were 2 digits. If you send me an email with an attached picture of the bottle and the mark (to davidrussell59 “at” att “dot” net), perhaps I can get a better idea of approximate age.
      Thanks for writing,

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  43. Colleen dunn says:

    It looks exactly like the “FF” script description

    • David says:

      Hi Colleen,
      I’m not familiar with the bottle, but that type of brand name (“Purity”) has been popular and used for alot of products throughout most of the 20th century. The actual company that produced the product may have been short-lived with little information to be found. (Unless you had lots of time to search through years and years of earlier Chicago business/city directories, where it is possible you could find the company listed).

      In any case, the “FF” mark stands for Foster-Forbes Glass Company, and unfortunately I don’t know exactly when the bottle would have been made. The “1489” is probably an inventory, catalog, or product identification number, or assigned to that particular style of bottle. Just a wild guess, and without seeing the bottle, I would say it might date from the 1940s-1950s. The number codes after the city name (in this case, 2 after Chicago) were used before the institution of zip codes in 1963.

  44. Colleen Dunn says:

    Do you know anything about ” purity brand furniture polish” says “Chicago 2, Ill” on the label
    Can’t seem to find the company online… Or anything about it. We have a case of them, unopened… Most with original labels in tact, in the original shipping box. The bottom of the bottle (underneath) says “7 1489” in between the 7 and 1489 is a circle with what looks to be two “J’s” intercepting each other…..
    We are stumped!

  45. brent says:

    i see you have ” unknown mark ” under the ” G within a diamond ” i do not know if this helps but i found an ” old mr. boston one pint bottle ” with this mark on the bottom . and thank you for this site you have made my life easier knowing that i can go to one place and find all the information i need .

    • David says:

      Thank you Brent,
      Every bit of additional info can’t do any harm, and might even help shed light on a possible maker, so I will add that to the entry. I am assuming that the “G in a diamond” stands for an actual glass manufacturer, but it is also possible that the “G” could be the initial of a distributor, wholesaler, distiller, product manufacturer, or some other type of company along those lines. Perhaps time will tell.

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    • David says:

      I have also wondered about this W G & J mark for a long time. The example I have seen is black glass, almost certainly of British make, and probably dates from sometime in the 1850s to 1880s period. I am sure there was a glass factory somewhere in England during that timeframe that conforms to those initials……..I just don’t know what the name of the company was!

  47. Brenda Moore says:

    I have a clear quart jar L.G.W on the bottom plus J49S on the bottom. The glass also has a checked pattern. Any information would be appreciated.

    • David says:

      Hi Brenda,
      Without seeing it, I will assume it is a Laurens Glass Works (Laurens, South Carolina) canning or fruit jar, probably made in the 1940s, 1950s or ’60s.
      The jars with the “cross-hatching” or checkered pattern were popular in that time period, and your jar might be related to the jars that are sometimes called “Hoosier jars” or “Hoosier Cabinet jars”. I suppose the J49S would be a mold number but I can’t say for sure.

      Take care, David

  48. Massive work… thanks is not enough. J.Hightower

  49. Irene says:

    I have a query. I found a bottle with the letters I b L 6 at its base and I can not find information abaut the manufacturer.
    Can anyone help?

  50. bob driggers says:

    love your site! can you tell me when the Northwestern Glass Company of Seattle Washington closed? having trouble identifying a tiny mason type jar with the NW and a star underneath. thanks!

    • admin says:

      Hi Bob,
      I really don’t know the year that Northwestern stopped production. I’m thinking I might have read somewhere that it was merged with, or purchased by, another glass company, thus any marks used would have been changed after that time. I have a vague feeling it might have been in the mid to late 1970s, but don’t quote me!!! (If any readers out there are familiar with the later history of Northwestern Glass, please help!). Can you send me a pic of the jar and a closeup of the mark? Send directly to Thanks! David

  51. admin says:

    Thanks for your resource. I was able to locate the manufacturer of my Carboy via your site. My carboy had an I inside a diamond and I was thrilled to find the information on your site.
    Bob L.

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