GLASS MANUFACTURERS’ MARKS ON BOTTLES - Page 1
Welcome! I’m interested in the history of the glass industry in the US, especially concerning the manufacturing of bottles, electrical insulators and tableware. On these three pages I’ve attempted to compile a list of glass manufacturers’ identification marks found on (primarily) American bottles and jars. (Click here to check another collector’s site that lists some Australian and English marks). I’m also including marks seen on glassware items other than bottles, including tableware and industrial glass items such as railroad lantern lenses. Entries on some of the more commonly encountered brand and company names (for instance, Bromo-Seltzer), seen embossed on bottles are also included, as I frequently get questions about them.
Note: For a very brief, basic discussion on the material “glass”, (without alot of scientific “jargon”), please check out my new webpage here: What is glass?? .
NOTE: When searching these pages, it may be helpful to press the CTRL+F keys (Find) on your keyboard to scan more quickly for a specific glass factory name, city and/or state name, or initials contained within the text.
Attention: For a very informative, comprehensive site with lots of detailed discussion on various aspects of antique bottles, including their many types, colors, methods of manufacture, uses, and clues to dating them, I strongly encourage you to check out Bill Lindsey’s Historic Glass Bottle Identification and Information Website (hosted by Sha.org). His site is a MONUMENTAL “work in progress”, and has a wealth of great information posted!!
The majority of the marks listed here are found on older bottles, but commonly seen trademarks used by present-day glass manufacturing concerns in the United States are also included.
For a comprehensive list of modern glass bottle manufacturers’ marks from around the world, you might also wish to check out the following link showing many of the more recent marks (properly called “punt marks” on their website) which are sometimes seen on bottles imported to the United States. Click here: Emhart Glass Database of Modern Punt Marks .
A website that I would heartily recommend, devoted to dairy-related antiques, is http://www.dairyantiques.com, and the site includes pages with alot of detailed information on glass companies that produced milk bottles, and the marks that were used by those firms. I would encourage any milk bottle collectors to try searching their list of marks: Milk Bottle Marks .
Another webpage which I recommend, especially to collectors of tableware and art glass, illustrates many glassmakers’ marks frequently seen on carnival glassware and other upscale glass. Although some of these marks are listed on my site, some of them are not. So be sure to check out Carnival Glass Marks !
Another site with an extensive list of marks is here: http://www.carnivalheaven.com/carnivalglass103/id76.htm .
Here is another site, this one specializing on information concerning shotglasses: Marks seen on shotglasses . Most, if not all, of the marks illustrated there are frequently seen on other types of glassware as well, which makes the page quite helpful to a broader spectrum of collecting fields.
ANTIQUE BEER & ALE BOTTLES
Researcher/historian Tod Von Mechow has compiled a large quantity of in-depth information on antique beer bottles, including both pottery and glass bottles. I would encourage anyone interested in makers’ marks on beer bottles (and soda bottles) to check out his site….. he has a very extensive list with alot of great material on obscure glass and pottery companies here: http://www.sodasandbeers.com/SABBottleManufBeerSoda.htm
Usually embossed on the base, marks may also appear on the lower heel area on certain types of bottles, especially sodas. On earlier flasks, fruit jars, and soda bottles, and especially examples produced in the mid-nineteenth century period (1840s-1860s), the full factory name or initials may be embossed across the front.
This list primarily includes marks that represent the actual glass company that made the container. Many marks are encountered that indicate the company whose product was contained within it, or are trademarks (“brand names”) that give no indication of who actually made the glass, and those are (with quite a few exceptions) , not included in my list.
From the standpoint of most collectors of antique bottles, the name and location of the company the bottle was made for, and the name of the product that was originally contained in the bottle (one or both of which may be embossed on the bottle) is often considered to be of more interest or importance than the glass factory where the bottle was actually manufactured. However, this site is geared with more emphasis on the actual glassmakers themselves. Hopefully this database will be of some help to those who are attempting to assign an approximate date range to a particular bottle, assuming that it carries an identifiable glass manufacturer’s mark.
NOTE: If initial(s) embossed on the base of a bottle match a firm name (other than a glass factory) on the front, the basemark will more than likely not be a glass manufacturer’s mark and so may not be listed here. This is very frequently the case, especially with soda, mineral water, beer and other bottles of the 1880-1930 period, in which the initial(s) of the “end user” (such as the bottler, brewery, drug manufacturer, or other firm for which the bottle was made) appear embossed on the base.
Please keep in mind that some marks (esp. initials of early glass companies) may vary slightly in appearance and punctuation from one bottle to another. For instance, they sometimes occur with or without periods after each letter. These variations in punctuation were common and probably reflected the whim of the mold engraver, thus having little or no importance (i.e. for assigning date ranges) especially on marks of pre-1900 bottles. For the most part, I have not attempted to list fine distinctions for marks that are found both with and without periods.
Another source of confusion was the common practice of engraving the “G” (especially in the 1880-1920 period) to appear very close in similarity to a “C”, the only difference between the two being a small “tail” pointing in a downward or “southeasterly” direction on the lower right-hand side of the letter G. Thus, the mark “A.B.G.M.Co.” might be misconstrued to read “A.B.C.M.Co.” Also, the abbreviation “Co” (Company) sometimes may be found embossed with either an upper- or lower-case “O” on various bottles made by the same manufacturer.
Many bottles carry only a number (or numbers) on the base. These marks usually served as some type of mold identification, indicating a particular mold used by a glass factory. If a number of identical molds were produced for making a certain type of bottle, they would often be serially numbered (such as 1 to 12). Some numbers served as date codes, or as some other type of internal code used by the factory. In the great majority of cases, bottles with only numbers on the base are difficult, if not impossible, to attribute to a specific glass maker. See webpage here with more info on numbers seen on bottles.
I will occasionally be adding more data to these pages as I uncover more accurate information. The info presented on this site is the most accurate I’ve been able to find at present, but any comments (pro or con), clarifications or corrections (preferably backed up with reliable source information) would be sincerely appreciated! Because of the volume of emails I receive, I may or may not respond to questions about marks not listed here. You are more than welcome to contact me, but please be aware that I’m not an appraisal service, and I may not respond to queries along the general lines of “what is this jar worth?” and “is this bottle worth the hassle of listing on ebay?”.
Generally speaking, I may not be able to answer questions concerning bottles with only mold or catalog numbers embossed on the base. (Please see my webpage on numbers on the bottom of bottles). You see, THOUSANDS of bottles carry nothing but a number on the base (or heel) , and this information (in most cases) does not help ID the source or age………nearly all glass factories used mold numbers on their containers at one time or another. However, the general style, shape and glass color of a container can give strong clues to approximate age.
Much of the basic information herein comes from research by Julian H. Toulouse published in his classic, indispensible and ground-breaking reference work Bottle Makers and their Marks (1971). That book is the best reference work ever published on glass manufacturers’ marks on bottles, but it does contain many errors which have been discovered over the last several decades since it’s publication.
Other sources of information I have used (including reference books, magazine articles, websites, and in some cases, email or voice communications) would include: Helen McKearin, Rhea Mansfield Knittle, Stephen Van Rennselaer, Harry Hall White, Alice Creswick, Dick Roller, William S. Walbridge, Cecil Munsey, Roger Peters, Gene Blasi, Adeline Pepper, Arthur G. Peterson, Bob Stahr, Fred Padgett, Rex L. Wilson, John O’Dell, Bill Lockhart, Jeffrey L. Giarde, David Bethman, Betty Zumwalt, Jay W. Hawkins, Peter R. Guetig, Conrad Selle, Don Dzuro, Johnnie W. Fletcher, Norman “Ted” Oppelt, Dick Cole, Harvey Teal, Dean Six, Tom Neff, Albert Morin, John P. Adams, Philip K. Huggins, Jack K. Paquette, Bill Lindsey, Carol Serr, and Mark Newton, as well as many others. (Eventually, I may add a page on this site with lists of books by some of the above-named persons which I found to be of most value. In the meantime, you might try an internet search for more information on these names……there is a wealth of information out there, with many books in libraries and/or online pertaining to glass history, antique glass collecting, glass container manufacturing, and related fields). This site also utilizes, to some degree, my own research and observations over several years of collecting & studying antique bottles, insulators and other glassware. I hope this list will be of assistance to those interested in antique bottles and other glass containers made in the United States and the history behind the factories that manufactured them.
I am striving to add more articles on this site relating to glass and glass collecting, both of a general nature, and addressing certain collecting “niches”, as time and energy permits! I hope you will return often to this site!! THANK YOU!!
- A…………………The letter “A” is sometimes merely a mold letter (identifying a particular mold used by a glass factory). If it is an abbreviation for a glass factory, it could stand for one of several companies. One possibility: Agnew & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1854-1894+). See “A & CO.” mark. Another possibility would be Adams & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1861-1891). Originally Adams, Macklin & Company (1851-1861), they did manufacture at least one type of fruit jar circa 1866, lettered “Adams & Co./Manufacturers/Pittsburgh,Pa.” on the front. However, the great bulk of their glass production seems to have been pressed pattern glass and high-quality tableware and novelties, especially throughout the later years of their operation. In 1891, they joined the merger known as the United States Glass Company. Note: If the bottle is machine-made, the letter “A” would indicate a much more recent company, perhaps Arkansas Glass Container Corporation, Jonesboro, Arkansas (1948-to date). See “A.G.C. in state of Arkansas”.
- A (stylized triangle with “A” as central motif)………….Arkansas Glass Container Corporation (Arkansas Glass), Jonesboro, Arkansas (1948-to date). I am not positive this mark has actually been used on containers. It has been displayed on their website. If you have up-to-date information on this mark, please contact me!
- A & CO…………Agnew & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1854-1894+). There was a series of glass companies in the Pittsburgh area in which the Agnew family was involved, beginning as early as 1842 with Chambers & Agnew. Later, approximately 1854, the firm became John Agnew & Company (1854-1870); then, John Agnew & Son (1871-1876) and later simply Agnew & Company (1876-1892+). The most recent incarnation seems to have been “The Agnew Company”, which was in operation in 1894 (a bottle catalog from this company exists, dated 1894) which may have continued on for some time afterwards. Jars that are marked “JOHN AGNEW & SON / PITTSBURG PA” presumably date from about 1871 to 1876, and those marked “AGNEW & CO / PITTSBURG PA” would date from c. 1876 into the early 1890s. See “A” entry.
- A in a circle………Armstrong Cork Company (Glass Division), Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Millville, New Jersey [former Whitall Tatum Co. plant] ; Dunkirk, Indiana [former Hart Glass Mnfg Co. plant]. Mark was used from 1938-1969 on bottles and insulators. If there is a line underneath the “circled A”, this indicates the bottle was produced at the Dunkirk plant.
- A in a diamond…….Unknown
- A , entwined with a bird emblem with wings outstretched; appears as if flying through the “A”. The logo actually represents a crow (a play on the company name) with glass marbles clutched in it’s talons and beak, but may be mistaken for an eagle or other bird of prey…………………..Akro Agate Company, Akron, Ohio (1910-1914) and Clarksburg, West Virginia (1914-1951). Maker of toy glass marbles as well as ashtrays, vases, children’s dishes and many other unusual novelty items. Akro Agate items are found in a wide variety of opaque and “slag” (marbled, multicolored) glass.
- A. Arbogast, Pitts…………..Alexander Arbogast / Arbogast & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c. 1860-c.1863). Mark is pictured in Bottles on the Western Frontier by Rex L. Wilson (1981:113), seen on a cylinder whiskey. See “Arbogast & Co. Pitts Pa”.
- A B (letters are not connected)………………uncertain, either American Bottle Company or Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company. Please see AB (connected) page, “AB (connected) Co”, and “A.B.CO” entries.
- AB (letters connected) ………………….. Please see this page where this mark is discussed in more detail.
- AB (letters connected) Co…………….. uncertain: either American Bottle Company (1905-1929) or Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company (1886-c.1926). Also, please see this page, and “A.B.CO.” mark.
- A.B.C……………..Atlantic Bottle Company, Brackenridge, Pennsylvania (c.1916-1930). First only a distributor (pre-1916), Atlantic was later an actual manufacturer of bottles. The Brackenridge plant was purchased by Owens-Illinois in 1930.
- A.B.CO……………….. American Bottle Company (1905-1929). Chicago, Illinois (office – 1905-1916); Toledo, Ohio (office – 1916-1929). Glass plants were located at Streator, Illinois; Newark, Ohio; Belleville, Illinois; Massillon, Ohio & Wooster, Ohio. The American Bottle Company was purchased by Owens Bottle Machine Company in 1916 (with some of the plants being closed soon afterwards) but the Streator and Newark plants continued to operate under the American Bottle Co. name until 1929, when they became part of the merger that resulted in Owens-Illinois Glass Company. (For Streator and Newark plant marks from 1916 to 1929, see “17N” and “16S” entries). Most, if not all, of the “AB”, “AB CO.” and “A.B.CO.” marked bottles are believed to date between 1905 and 1916. However, it is possible that some bottles with these markings might date between 1916 and 1929, but, if so, could only have been made at either the Streator or Newark plants. See also “AB (letters connected)” page, here.
- A.B.G.CO…………..Adolphus Busch Glass Mnfg. Company, see “A.B.G.M.CO.” Also, see the “AB (connected)” mark on this page.
- A.B.G.C.ST.L……….Adolphus Busch Glass Mnfg. Company (Presumably produced at their St. Louis glass factory location post-1891). See next entry.
- A.B.G.M.CO…………Adolphus Busch Glass Mnfg. Company, plants at Belleville, Illinois (1886-c.1905) and St.Louis, MO (c.1891-c. 1926). The Belleville factory became part of American Bottle Company c.1905. (See AB (connected) and A.B.CO. marks).
- Acorn logo (shown)………Bellaire Bottle Company (Works), Bellaire, Ohio (c.1885-1921+). Logo is occasionally seen on the base of clear glass prescription/medicine bottles. Thanks to David Bethman for emailing me with info on the source of this mysterious acorn mark! He reports that the mark appears on a Bellaire Bottle Company letterhead shown in a book by Scott Tyson called “Glass Houses of the 1800s”.
- Adlam’s Patent (on base of jars)…….. Several different jars are known with such embossings as “ADLAM’S PATENT” or “PAT. GLASS PAIL / BOSTON MASS” on base. They came with unusual metal screw lids; some lids are marked “ADLAM PATENT PAIL”. Patents were issued to Samuel Adlam, Jr. of Boston. These jars evidently date from the 1880s or 1890s. Currently, the glass manufacturer that made these jars is unknown / unidentified.
- A. & D. H. C. ………Alexander & David H. Chambers, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1843-c.1889). This was one of the most prolific glass companies in Pittsburgh during the mid-to-late 1800s. Huge quantities of bottles, flasks, and fruit jars were made, as well as window glass. Many local, regional, and nationally distributed sodas, mineral waters, beers, bitters, tonics, and other types of products were packaged in bottles made by A&DHC. Most commonly, bottles with this mark seem to date from the 1870s and 1880s, but the mark was probably in use at least from around the start of the Civil War, perhaps a bit earlier.
- Adams & Co…………. See “A” entry.
- AG (stylized letters forming an anchor)……..Anchor Glass Container Corporation. See “Anchor….” entry, farther down on this page.
- A G C (letters are diagonally arranged, from “Northwest” to “Southeast”)……….Arkansas Glass Container Corporation, Jonesboro, AR (1948-to-date).
- A G C (within outline of state of Arkansas) ………… Arkansas Glass Container Corporation, Jonesboro, Arkansas (1948-to date)
- A. G. CO………………. Evidently used by at least three different glass companies including: Atlanta Glass Company, Atlanta, Georgia (1887-c.1892), Annapolis Glass Company, Annapolis, Maryland (1885-c.1887) and Alexandria Glass Company, Alexandria, Virginia (1905-1916). The mark appears on the base of certain liquor flasks, soda bottles and other types of containers. Also, on the face of certain fruit jars, the initials “A.G.CO.” might stand for the American Grocery Company. For much more in-depth analysis of this mark and several related marks, (detailing different types of bottles that carry this mark, and info on which companies are more likely candidates for attribution to a specific type of container), please check out “The A.G.Co Logo” (Bill Lockhart et al), a pdf file, here: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AGCo.pdf
- Agnew & CO…………See “A & CO.”
- Agnew & Son………..See “A & CO.”
- A.G.W……………..in some cases, American Glass Works, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1866-1905). This company, which was officially known as “American Glass Works, Limited” after 1880, MAY have produced some glass marked “A.G.W.” during the time period of 1866-1880, although I am not aware of any definitive proof that they did. American Glass Works reportedly manufactured mostly window glass prior to 1880. After 1880, the mark was most frequently “A.G.W.L.”, although various bottles that date after 1880 (such as certain hutchinson sodas, and aqua coffin or “shoofly” flasks) do carry “A.G.W.”(no L) so I tend to believe that both mark variants were used, at times, during the 1880-1905 period. (See next two entries).
- A.G.W……………..American Glass Works, Richmond, Virginia (1908-1925) and Paden City, West Virginia (1918-c.1935). Bottles (especially crown-closure soda bottles) of the teens and 1920s from the VA and surrounding area with “A.G.W.” marked on the base are virtually certain to be products of this company (not to be confused with the earlier American Glass Works of Pittsburgh, an unrelated company). Machine-made bottles date after 1916 (Toulouse 1971:23). The Richmond plant burned in 1925 and was not rebuilt. This company also reportedly used an “A in a circle” mark on some bottles. In any case, that mark was primarily used by the Armstrong Cork Company from 1938 to 1969.
- A.G.W.L……………American Glass Works, Limited, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1880-1905). Advertisements exist which show this company produced a large line of Hutchinson type soda bottles, as well as many other bottles including beers and mineral waters. The mark “A.G.W.L.” which appears on the heel of many Hutchinsons can be definitely attributed to this company. Please see the above two entries on “A.G.W.”
- A H K………Alexander H. Kerr & Company, Altoona, Kansas (1909-1912); Sand Springs, Oklahoma (1912-19??); later plants at Huntington, West Virginia (1933-19??); Santa Ana, California (1943-19??) and several other locations. Business offices in Los Angeles after 1919. This trademark was used from 1944-1992. See Kerr mark.
- Albany Glass Works…………Albany Glass Works, Albany, New York. Two types of historical flasks with the bust of Washington on them, lettered with this company name, are believed to have been manufactured sometime in the 1820s. HOWEVER, the great majority of flasks which are found with this inscription are modern reproductions dating after the 1930s, with most having been produced up into the 1960s or 1970s or even later. If you have a flask with the marking “Albany Glass Works”, it is best to assume it is a repro until proven otherwise!
- American National Can Company (1987-2000) emblem. This mark (shown in pic) is hard to classify, so is pictured on this page. This was photographed on the base of a colorless non-returnable 16-ounce soda bottle with a 1991 date code. Please also see “triangular logo” (which might be construed as a highly abstract “sailboat” representation) on page three. If you have information on the exact time frame during which these marks were used, please contact me! Thank you!
- A.M.F.& CO……..Adelbert M. Foster & Company, Boston & Chicago (1873-1928). This company is connected with D.F.& Co.
- AMPAK ………………….. mark seen on base of clear whiskey flask, apparently of very recent manufacture (c. 2000+). Ampak, based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, maker/distributor of both glass and plastic containers.
- AM. TEL. & TEL. CO. (On glass telephone insulators)…………… American Telephone & Telegraph Company (formed in 1885), now known as “A T & T Corporation”, a subsidiary of parent company A T & T, Inc.. Most of the insulators marked with these initials are “toll” (long distance) style units, classed as “CD 121″ in the Consolidated Design numbering system used by collectors. They were made by several glass manufacturers, including Hemingray Glass Company, Brookfield Glass Company, and others. They primarily date from the 1895 to 1915 period.
- Anchor, or Anchor & chain (embossed design) on mouth-blown flasks……………….The pictorial representation of an anchor appears on many liquor flasks spanning (approximately) the 1830-1910 period, and many of these seem to be found in the general Baltimore, Maryland area. It is certain they were made by more than one glassmaker. Baltimore Glass Works certainly made some of them, and no doubt other glass companies in the Baltimore area also made them. The anchor can be placed either on the base, or on the front of the bottle. A variety of these would make an interesting collection in and of themselves.
- Anchorglass (one word)…………..trademark used by Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation. Not sure on exact years used, but this name appears on paper or foil labels attached to tableware from the 1950s era.
- Anchor Hocking………………..see webpage here.
- Anchor logo with an “H” superimposed over it (shown)……..Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation, Lancaster, Ohio and other plant locations (1937-to date). More info here.
- Anchor within a rectangle (shown)………Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation, Lancaster, Ohio & other locations. (1937-to date). Mark used since 1977. See Anchor Hocking Corporation page.
- Anchor logo (pictured: stylized angular “AG” letters, forming an anchor)……………..Anchor Glass Container Corporation, Tampa, Florida [head office], plants at Salem, NJ; Connellsville, PA; Winchester, IN; Shakopee, MN; Henryetta, OK; Jacksonville, FL; Elmira, NY; Warner-Robins, GA and Lawrenceburg, IN (1983-2012). Anchor Glass Container Corp. was “spun off” from Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation in 1983. AGCC has produced vast quantities of bottles and jars…………..liquor bottles, food containers, etc. Note: Anchor Glass Container Corporation (as of August 2012) was purchased by Ardagh Group, based in Luxembourg, Europe. Most of the former Anchor Glass plants (listed above) are still operating (as of 2013) under the Ardagh Group banner. http://www.ardaghgroup.com/ . For more info on Anchor Hocking Glass marks, click here.
- Angel above crown logo……….Kerr Glass Manufacturing Company, Portland, Oregon and other locations. Logo used on base of jelly jars and other glass items.
- A & P ……………Uncertain. Reported on the base of a sauce bottle (a Worcestershire Sauce “lookalike” brand) dating circa 1880s. In this case the mark is probably that of the food product maker or distributor, and not that of the glass maker.
- Arbogast & Co. Pitts. PA…………………Arbogast & Company (Alexander Arbogast), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c. 1860-c.1863). See “A. Arbogast” entry. Obscure manufacturer that specialized in blackglass bottles. More detailed information on this operation (and many others) can be found in Glasshouses and Glass Manufacturers in the Pittsburgh Region 1795-1910 (2009) by Jay W. Hawkins.
- Arcoroc…………………………Brand name used by Arc International (headquartered in Arques, France) for their commercial-grade glassware (ware made to withstand heavier abuse than items sold for typical home use), such as drinkware, cookware, serving bowls, etc, used in restaurants and other institutional settings. Arc International also produced glass under the LUMINARC brand name which is usually sold for typical consumer use. Most Arcoroc glassware sold within the United States is evidently made at their North American glassware-producing facility (Durand Glass Manufacturing Company) which is located in Millville, New Jersey. Durand started glass production at Millville in 1982. Other glass production facilities operated by Arc International (and where Arcoroc brand ware may also be made) include locations at Châteauroux, France and Nanjing, China.
- Atlas (on fruit jar)……….Atlas Glass Company, Washington, Pennsylvania (1896-1902), and the Hazel-Atlas Glass Company, Wheeling, West Virginia and other plant locations. (1902-1964)
- Atlas / H-A / Mason…………………..Hazel-Atlas Glass Company.
- Atterbury/Atterbury’s Patent June 30, 1863…………….(on fruit jars) Atterbury & Company (J.S. & T. B. Atterbury).
- Avon…………………………Please see my webpage on AVON BOTTLES here. A brief discussion of Avon bottles including the glass figural bottles (such as the cars, etc) is presented there.
- A W inside an oval…………………………..American-Wheaton Glass Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana (mark used approx. 1959-1962). Shortlived merger/reorganization. Later became American Can Company, Glass products division (1962-1967), and then Midland Glass Company in 1968. Midland was based in Cliffwood, New Jersey but also operated plants at Shakopee, MN as well as the Terre Haute facility.
- A. & W. ………………probably Agnews & Wilcox, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1869).
- B (on certain handblown bottles, c.1910 or earlier)…………Uncertain. See next entries. The B can also be a mold letter, with no indication of the glassmaker.
- B (with 2 serifs)…………….sometimes Brockway Glass Company, Brockway, Pennsylvania (1907-1988). See “B in a circle“.
- B (with 2 serifs)……often the Chas. Boldt Glass Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, at least on their early liquor bottles and other ware made in the circa 1900-1919 period. NOTE : Manufacturer attributions of bottles with a “B” on the base are confusing and (in my opinion) not completely certain. More information on the Chas. Boldt marks can be found here .
- B (without serifs)………….in some cases, perhaps Buck Glass Company, Baltimore, Maryland (c.1909-1961). Buck Glass was sold to Knox Glass, Inc. in 1961.
- B in cursive script (shown)………Ball Glass Container Corporation, subsidiary of Ball Corporation. This mark used on some containers 1994-1995. See Ball Bros Glass Company.
- B in a circle………Brockway Machine Bottle Company (1907-1933) became Brockway Glass Company (1933-1988), Brockway, Pennsylvania. See B in a circle page.
- B within a diamond (on the base of bottles) …………………. Binghamton Glass Company, Binghamton, New York (1880-1957). This company produced handmade bottles from it’s beginning up to approximately 1930, thereafter continuing to sell glassware as a wholesale distributor (glass made by other concerns), including a line of “Diamond I” prescription ware made by Illinois Glass Company of Alton, IL. The last mention of this company was in the 1957 Binghamton city directory. The great majority of bottles produced by Binghamton do not carry a glassmakers’ ID mark. Many of the Kilmer Swamp Root bottles were made by Binghamton. Known bottles with the “B in a diamond” mark on the bottom include square Horseradish bottles (would be generally termed “square pickle bottles” by the average collector) that are pictured in local Binghamton Glass Co. newspaper ads from the early 1900s and were evidently made in considerable numbers for several years, and a rectangular medicine-type bottle which was found with a paper label for Harris Extract Company of Binghamton, circa 1906, and can safely be attributed to this glassworks. Much more detailed information can be found in a new reference work by Maurice R. Hitt, entitled A History of the Binghamton Glass Company (published in 2011) . Thanks Maurice for this information!
- B within a diamond (on upscale ornamental and novelty glass, not utilitarian bottles)…………………used by Boyd’s Crystal Art Glass, Inc, Cambridge, Ohio (1978-to date), and is found on their handmade ornamental and novelty glass, toothpick holders, etc. For a list of the variations in their mark and how to date them, click here.
- Ball……………………Ball Brothers Manufacturing Company/Ball Brothers Company (Ball Corporation after 1969), Muncie, Indiana and other locations (1888-1998) . Please see Ball Bros Glass Manufacturing Company page for a brief summary of this company.
- Ball Bro’s Glass Mf’G Co. Buffalo…………Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company, Buffalo, NY (marking seen on glass fruit jar lids made c. 1885-1888). See Ball webpage for summary of this company.
- Ball Perfect Mason……see this page with a brief summary of this popular jar, as well as Ball Bros Glass Manufacturing Company page.
- Baltimore Glass Works………………..Baltimore Glass Works, Baltimore, Maryland (c.1800-1905, which includes a succession of firms). Various flasks and bottles are marked with the full factory name, and the majority of these probably date between 1830 and 1870. Also, see B.B. & Co.
- B.& A.C.CO…………Baker & Adamson Chemical Company (1881-1913). Producer of acids and other chemicals. Although not the mark of a glass factory, this may be mistaken for one. Seen on the base of chemical and acid jars and bottles, most of which probably date from the early period — 1881 to 1900. B&A was bought by General Chemical in 1900, and in 1913 General became a division of Allied Chemical & Dye Corporation, later Allied Chemical Corp. ACC merged into Allied-Signal and that company is now part of Honeywell, Inc.
- BANNER ……….. trademark used by Obear-Nestor Glass Company, East St. Louis, Illinois (1894-c.1980) for one of their lines of druggist bottles. Confirmed on the base of a clear rectangular pharmaceutical/prescription bottle. According to Arthur G. Peterson’s “400 Trademarks on Glass” this was used beginning in 1899. No word on ending date.
- “Belt Buckle” logo (oval shape with line through center) ……….Western Glass Manufacturing Company, Valverde (Denver), Colorado (c.1900-1909).
- B B……………..Berney-Bond Glass Company (1905-1930), see entry under “B B G CO”.
- BB48…………….Berney-Bond Glass Company (1905-1930), see entry under “B B G CO”. NOTE: Milk bottles bearing the mark “BB48″ were also made by Owens-Illinois Glass Company for many years after Berney-Bond was no longer in existence. In cases such as this, the Owens-Illinois mark (diamond superimposed with O and I) will also be seen on the base. Most of the bottles carrying both of these marks were made at the former Berney-Bond glass plant at Clarion, PA, which became O-I plant number 17. I am not sure how late the BB48 mark was retained on Owens-Illinois milk bottles made at this plant, but have seen a bottle with a 1947 date code.
- B B CO……………Berney-Bond Glass Company (1905-1930), see entry below. Another possibility: the mark on some bottles might stand for the Bellaire Bottle Company, Bellaire, Ohio (c.1885-1921+); or the Bell Bottle Company, Fairmount, Indiana (1910-1914)
- B. B. & Co. …………Baker Bros. & Company (proprietors of the Baltimore Glass Works), Baltimore, Maryland (1852-1905). Mark seen on the base of Baltimore-area aqua blob beer bottles from the c. 1880-1895 period. (Thanks to Greg Franklin for supplying info on this mark!)
- B B G CO………….Berney-Bond Glass Company (1905-1930). A merger of the Bond Glass and Berney Glass companies, plants were located in Bradford, Hazel Hurst, Smethport, Clarion, and Knox, all in the state of Pennsylvania; the Winslow Glass Co. plant at Columbus, Ohio was purchased in 1927. Berney-Bond was bought by Owens-Illinois in 1930. Most of these plants were closed down in later years, until by the early 1970s only the Clarion plant (Owens-Illinois plant #17) was still making bottles.
- BBGMCO (monogram on jars)……..Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company, Buffalo, New York (used on fruit jars c.1886-1888 before move to Muncie, IN.) See “Ball”.
- B-C …………Bartlett-Collins Glass Company, Sapulpa, Oklahoma (1914-1929); Bartlett-Collins Company (1929-1980s). B-C mark was used on tumblers after 1921, but I do not know how long after that the mark was used. Manufacturer of a wide line of tableware over the years, Barlett-Collins is now a subsidiary of the Lancaster Colony Corporation, currently producing items such as jars, mugs, canisters and votive candleholders under the brand name “Indiana Glass”. These items do not carry an embossed maker’s mark. A sister plant operated by Lancaster, located at Dunkirk, Indiana (the original “Indiana Glass Company” factory) ceased production of glass in 2002. See “Indiana Glass” and “LCC” marks.
- BF……………….Ball-Foster Corporation (mark used 1995-2000). In 2000 became Saint-Gobain Containers, with the SG mark being instituted. See Ball Bros Glass Company.
- B & Co [o is underlined], below a triangle…………….. Unknown. Triangle has number “500″ embossed within, on the example reported, but perhaps a different number appears on other containers? Hand-blown, odd lip jar, off-clear glass w/perhaps faint grey-amethyst tint. Perhaps European origin? (Reported by Sam Lawson).
- B.F.G.CO………….Beaver Flint Glass Company, Toronto, Ontario , Canada (c.1897-1948). NOTE: This marking is also found on glass telegraph insulators made by the Beaver Falls Glass Company, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania (1869-1879). The mark was also very likely used on bottles, as this same set of initials are seen on certain soda/mineral water bottles of the period.
- B.G.CO……………this mark was used by a number of different companies, and there is still uncertainty on absolute attribution in many cases. On earlier blob-top ”export style” beer bottles and soda bottles, usually Belleville Glass Company, Belleville, Illinois (1882-1886). The Belleville factory was purchased by Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Co. in 1886, and presumably the B G CO mark was discontinued soon after, being replaced by A.B.G.CO. or A.B.G.M.CO. The “B.G.CO.” mark was also used by Burlington Glass Works, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (1875-1909) on the face of their “Burlington” fruit jars. A Moxie soda bottle variant with a crown lip carries the B.G.CO. mark, and in that case would have been made by an unidentified factory some time after 1892 (the year the “crown” style lip was introduced). ”B.G.CO.” is also reported on the heel of a light green crown lip Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association beer bottle that appears to date from the 1910s or 1920s. The maker is uncertain. On some milk bottles, B. G. CO. was apparently used by Buck Glass Company, Baltimore, Maryland. (Buck normally used just a “B”). If you have information that could shed light on the BGCO marks, please contact me.
- BI (stylized B with small letter I inside lower loop of B)………Ball-InCon Corporation (mark used 1988-1994). Ball-Incon was formed in 1988 as a merger of the glass plants owned by Ball Corp, combined with the Indianhead Container Corp which consisted of glass plants at Laurens, SC; Port Allegany, PA; Madera, CA and other locations. See Ball Bros Glass Company.
- BiXby……………..S.M.Bixby & Company, New York, New York. (1862-19?). For a brief summary of this company, click here.
- Blenko Handcraft (usually seen on paper or foil labels) ………………………….. Blenko Glass Company (began 1893, later, at Milton, West Virginia since 1921). Maker of beautiful hand-made blown glass in a wide range of bright colors; the most popular item ever produced would be their widely-recognized “Water Bottle” with a very characteristic shape. This bottle has been made in many, many colors since 1938. A wide variety of handmade items are produced, some of them from handcarved wooden molds as well as iron molds. Very few Blenko glass articles were marked (in the glass itself), but here is a page with more info. http://blenkoarchive.org/blenko_signatures_labels.htm . The official Blenko Glass Company website is here: http://www.blenko.com
- B. L. Fahnstock Fortune & Co. Pitts. Pa. ……………..Fahnstock, Fortune & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1866-1873). Mark seen on the base of wax sealer and “Kline stopper” type fruit jars. This company was evidently sold to Evans, Sell & Company in 1873. See “F. A. & Co” and “E. S. & CO.” marks.
- Blue Ribbon………..Standard Glass Company, Marion, Indiana (c. 1907-1933). Trademark is found base-embossed on their line of clear (“flint”) rectangular pharmaceutical/prescription bottles. This trademark was first used in 1908, according to information published in Arthur G. Peterson’s 400 Trademarks on Glass(1968). Standard Glass Company was bought by Foster-Forbes Glass Company in 1933.
- B.& M.S.Co……….Bottler’s & Manufacturer’s Supply Company, Long Island City, NY (c.1897-1920). Seen on heel of New York City-area blob beer bottles.
- B.O.C……………..Unknown (Seen on base of yellow amber quart blob beer bottle, c. 1885, shown here in pic). Although it has been proposed by some researchers that this mark is merely a mold-cutting error for “D.O.C.” (see that entry), I am doubtful and believe that this does stand for an obscure glass company (or some type of bottling or brewing firm?) with those corresponding initials. The embossed lettering is very strong and bold on this bottle.
- BODE……………..Bode Extract Company, Chicago, Illinois (Gustav Augustus Bode, proprietor). Mark seen on the heel of a few hutch soda bottles. Bode evidently manufactured bottles from c. 1890 to 1892, but thereafter concentrated on the production of extracts. He passed away in 1900. Thanks to Joel Ferguson for sending me this info!
- Boyd’s Genuine Porcelain Lined Cap (or ‘Genuine Boyd Cap for Mason Jars’, other variations)………. marking seen on white milkglass inserts (discs or lids) used with zinc lids on “Mason” type fruit jars. Please see this page for more information.
- B. P.& B………Bakewell, Page & Bakewell, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1824-1836)
- B.P.CO……………Brunswick Pharmacal Company, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Seen on small cobalt medicinal bottles, dating perhaps from about 1895-1930. Bottles are also marked with a “back-to-back PP” inside a circle. Actual glass manufacturer is unknown, but Maryland Glass Corporation, Baltimore, MD (a prolific maker of cobalt blue bottles after 1907) could be one possibility. The “B.P.CO.” marking bears no relationship to the next entry.
- B.P.& Co………Beck, Phillips & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1866-1886+). Seen on the base of wax sealer fruit jars. Some similar jars are also found lettered “Beck, Phillips & Co. Pitts.Pa” in a circle on the base. McKearin (1941:611) indicates this company changed it’s name to “Phillips & Company” in 1874, and was still operating in 1886. The actual ending date was not given. So presumably the jars found with either of these marks would date between about 1866 and 1874.
- Brockway………….Brockway Glass Company, Brockway, Pennsylvania (1907-1988). See “B in a circle” page. Most bottles I have seen with the cursive “Brockway” marking, usually embossed on the base, appear to date from the 1950s-1970s period, although I don’t know the exact period of use of this mark.
- Brody (E.O.Brody)………………… E.O. Brody Company, Cleveland, Ohio (1958-to date). This is NOT a glass company, but a jobber/distributor of products made especially for the florist industry. See more info here.
- Bromo-Seltzer / Emerson Drug Co. / Baltimore, MD. (usually embossed across the face of the bottle)………………………. Bromo-Seltzer was an extremely popular drug, in the form of a powder, introduced circa 1891. For more information, please see the Bromo Seltzer page.
- Brookfield………….(On glass insulators), Brookfield Glass Company, with factories at Brooklyn, NY and Old Bridge, NJ. See Bushwick Glass Works (Brookfield Glass Company) page.
- Brookfield……………(On milk bottles). See this page on the Brookfield “Baby Face” milk bottles.
- Brooklyn Glass Bottle Works………………..Brooklyn Glass Bottle Works, Brooklyn, New York. Time period when this plant was in operation is uncertain. From the type and general style of bottle which carries the mark (early cylinder whiskey), it looks like the company was probably in operation during the 1860s or 1870s.
- Burgin & Sons…………………………Philadelphia Glass Works, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. See “Philada Glass Works”.
- Burnett’s Cocoaine…………………..This was actually a hair dressing made with Coconut Oil, promoted as a product guaranteed to give the hair a more luxurious, healthy appearance. Contrary to what some collectors might assume upon finding a bottle with this embossing, the product did not contain cocaine (unlike some of the products being sold in the mid and late 1800s that did indeed contain that ingredient). First sold in 1856 by Joseph Burnett of Southborough, Massachusetts, it was a popular product for many years and was still available into the early 20th century. Several variations of the bottles exist. The glassmaker is uncertain, but it is probable that one or more bottle companies located within or near the Boston area manufactured these bottles. For more information on the Burnett products and ephemera, and photos of many of the bottle variants that are known, see this page at http://www.southboroughhistory.org/History/Burnett%20Company/Medical/History_of_Burnett_%20Med_%20Prod.htm .
- Bushwick Glass Works………….Bushwick Glass Works, Brooklyn, New York (1864-c.1906). More commonly known under the name Brookfield Glass Company. Prolific maker of glass electrical insulators, they also made considerable quantities of bottles and jars, the great majority of which were not marked with the company name. See my webpage with more info here: Brookfield Glass Company .
- C………………..On containers, sometimes a mold letter, but may stand for a specific glass company in certain cases. Some bottles with a “C” were probably made in Pittsburgh by Cunningham & Company. Certain other bottles, of hand-blown make and quite often found in the general vicinity of St. Louis, Missouri metro area, MIGHT be products of the St. Louis Glass Works, first formed in about 1840 (or 1844, or 1847, according to various sources). St. Louis Glass Works went through numerous short-lived proprietorships in it’s early years, and eventually came under the control of John K. Cummings (J K Cummings) about 1861. Cummings ran the firm co-partnered with Joseph Bagot, until Bagot’s death in 1868. From about 1870 until at least 1886 or later, Cummings ran the St. Louis Glass Works as president, which produced primarily bottles and fruit jars. It is a possibility that the “C” indicates production at SLGW, and if so, would presumably stand for Cummings. However, this is only an unsubstantiated conjecture! Perhaps future research will decide this question authoritatively!
- C (highly stylized emblem seen on upscale tableware including tumblers)…………. this particular mark is actually an “R” but might be mistaken as an abstract capital “C” or “G”. Please see the “R” entry on page three showing an actual photograph of this mark used by Rosendahl, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- C in a circle……..Chattanooga Glass Company, Chattanooga, Tennessee & other plant locations in later years (1901-1988), mark was used c.1927-1988. The circle reportedly may be either “single line” or “double line” on some earlier bottles. Chattanooga Glass Company made tremendous quantities of the classic “hobbleskirt” shaped Coca-Cola bottles, and the “C in a circle” is often seen on the side or the base of these bottles.
- C in a diamond…….Unknown.
- C in a pentagon…….Unknown. Seen on base of glass figurines.
- C in a rectangle…….Crystal Glass Company, Los Angeles, California (c. 1921-1928). Although Julian Toulouse illustrates this mark as (apparently) a “C in a square” in his BOTTLE MAKERS AND THEIR MARKS (1971), the original reference which he alludes to is Arthur G. Peterson’s 400 TRADEMARKS ON GLASS(1968) and the shape in Peterson’s book, page 48, is described as a “rectangle”. The Crystal Glass Company, according to Toulouse (he referring to contemporary glass manufacturer directory listings) made glass tableware, both pressed and blown. I’ve received photos showing this mark, obviously a “C within a rectangle”, clearly embossed on the base of a heavy, clear glass water pitcher which appears to be of early 20th century make, in a design somewhat akin to EAPG patterns such as FLUTE, HUBER, COLONIAL, HEAVY RIB, or some variant of that general type of pattern. I am assuming this pitcher was indeed made by Crystal Glass Company of Los Angeles. (Thanks to Darlu Littledeer for her photo of this mark!)
- C in a star……….Coshocton Glass Company, Coshocton, Ohio (c. 1902-1923). Also, a similar mark may be found on bottles made by the Star City Glass Works, Star City, West Virginia (1949-1966) and Coventry, Rhode Island (1966-19??).
- C in a triangle…………….Consumers Glass Company, Ville St. Pierre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (1917-2002). Mark was an inverted triangle (point down) from 1917 to 1961, and a slightly rounded “right-side up” triangle after 1962 (shown in pic), according to information per Toulouse. Consumers Glass (division of Consumers Packaging, Inc) was acquired by Owens-Illinois, Inc. (O-I) in 2002 and is now known as O-I Canada. I am assuming (but do not know this to be true) that all bottles produced after O-I acquired Consumers Glass are marked with the Owens-Illinois identification (i.e. “I inside an O” or “O-I”) and the “C in a triangle with rounded corners” logo has been discontinued. See also “C.G.C.”.
- C in a triangle…………Cambridge Glass Company, Cambridge, Ohio (1901-1958). Cambridge Glass produced high-quality, handmade pressed and blown tableware, art glass and novelties, NOT utilitarian container glass. See above entry.
- C with NY inside……………………..Central New York Bottle Company, Auburn, New York (c. 1978-c.1980s?). See “NY within a C” entry on page three.
- Caldwell’s (Dr. W. B. Caldwell’s / Monticello, Illinois) or Caldwell’s Syrup Pepsin …………………………………………………………Medicine bottles found in many, many variants, with differences in exact wording or arrangement of lettering. Please see this page for more information .
- California (on electrical insulators) ………………………….California Glass Insulator Company, Long Beach, CA
- Camden Glass Works…………Camden Glass Works, Camden, New Jersey (1875-1884).
- Canton……………Canton Glass Company, Canton, Ohio (1883-1890), Marion, IN (1890-1958) and Hartford City, IN (1958-1991+). Fruit jars embossed “The Canton Jar”, “The Canton Fruit Jar” or a similar embossing are products of this company. Those jars date from the earlier years of the company, i.e., in the 1880s & 1890s. Canton is also known for having produced tableware in a variety of patterns which are sought after by some EAPG (Early American Pattern Glass) collectors. Canton joined the National Glass Company combine and operated under that umbrella company from 1899 to 1902. In September 1902, a new firm under the name of “Canton Glass Company” was organized, and a new factory building was erected in Marion right across the street from the old. After 1902, most of Canton’s glass production consisted of non-bottle, non-jar items including tableware and a large variety of other types of specialty glass such as lantern globes, bird baths and seed cups, sidewalk and skylight glass, hospital & laboratory glassware, bar & soda fountain glassware, etc. Canton moved to Hartford City in 1958, and was reportedly still in business there as late as 1991. It is unclear exactly how much and what types of glassware were being produced during this later period.
- Capstan logo (looks somewhat like “pawn” chess piece, shown)…………..see Capstan Glass Company page.
- Carter’s ………………………………..Carter’s Ink Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Seen embossed on the base of ink bottles. For instance, a commonly seen type of “cone ink” style bottle is marked “CARTER’S / 1897 / MADE / IN. U.S.A.” on the bottom. This type of bottle was produced in large numbers and likely was made for a number of years after 1897, perhaps into the 1910s. The earlier versions are most often found in aqua, later ones are commonly clear glass. Actual glassmaker is uncertain on the earlier cone inks, but likely several different bottle manufacturers made these ink containers over a period of several decades. Some of the later versions may carry a glassmaker’s mark. For more info on the Carter’s Ink Company, check out http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carter’s_Ink_Company .
- Castoria…………………please see entry on Fletcher’s Castoria, page one.
- C B……………..Clevenger Bros. Glass Works, Clayton, New Jersey (1930-1999). Clevenger Bros. specialized in producing hand-blown bottles and other glassware made in the tradition of the earlier glass factories. Some examples can be difficult to distinguish from the originals, although there are always subtle differences upon close examination, especially concerning the exact appearance of the base pontil mark. Most of their earlier bottles and flasks were unmarked, as this mark was used beginning in 1966.
- C B B; C B K; C B M, etc (as shown)…………… Seen on the bases of various handmade, light green, wide-mouth round pickle or chutney-type jars made in England. Judging by general appearance, they seem to date primarily from the 1870s-90s. The letters are arranged in a triangular configuration, with the third letter centered underneath the first two letters. These jars were attributed to Kilner Bros Glass Company/Kilner Bros, Ltd, Thornhill-Lees, West Yorkshire, England (c.1857-1937) by Alice Creswick (page 94 of The Fruit Jar Works, 1995). It seems that she attributes the jars to Kilner because they appear virtually identical to others marked “Kilner Bros Makers London” on the side. The closure shown (a glass stopper) was the same shape as those found on Kilner-marked jars, and are lettered ”J. Kilner & Sons Wakefield” or “KBT”. However, I have reservations on the attribution: The markings “C B M” or “C B B” on the bottom do not intrinsically make sense; why not “K B T”, “K B Ltd” or “J K & S” on these jars if they were made by Kilner? Do we know that all of the glass stoppers were original to the jars, as found? I suspect (but do not know this to be true!!) that these jars might have been made by Charles Borron & Company (see C B & Co mark, below). Another (slight) possibility: the letters might represent Crosse & Blackwell, London, prolific purveyors of food products including pickles, chutney, etc. (If that is the case, the glassmaker would still be uncertain since C & B was a distributor, not a glass manufacturer). If any British bottle collectors have info or insight on the correct identification/attribution of these jars, I would love to hear some input from you! I want this page to be as accurate as possible!
- C.B.CO………………Charles Boldt [Glass] Company, Cincinnati, Ohio (1900-1919). See C.B.G.CO. entry.
- C.B. & Co / N …………almost certainly Charles Borron & Company, Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire, England (1866-?). This mark is seen on the base of dark green ale bottles which appear to have been made sometime in the 1870-1910 period. It is unclear how late this company continued to operate. An old illustration showing this glassworks appears on the http://newton-le-willows.com website. The operation was evidently quite large assuming the picture was reasonably accurate in it’s depiction of the works.
- C.B.G.CO…………….Possibly Chattanooga Bottle [&] Glass Company, Chattanooga, Tennessee. Also might be the mark of the Charles Boldt Glass Company, Cincinnati, OH & Huntington, WV (1900-1919). Their Cincinnati plant closed in 1919, and the Huntington factory continued as Charles Boldt Glass Manufacturing Company from 1919 to 1929. This mark occurs on the base of various soda bottles of the early 20th century, especially from southern states such as Georgia, Tennessee and Alabama. This may point to a stronger possibility of the mark being from Chattanooga. Anyone with more info on this mark, please contact me. Please see next entry.
- C. B. & G. CO…………….Possibly Chattanooga Bottle & Glass Company, later Chattanooga Glass Company, Chattanooga, TN (1901-1988). Mark would presumably be from the earlier years of operation, circa 1901-1927. See “C in a circle”.
- C.C. (seen on the base of a round pickle jar, in a light/medium green-colored glass that looks suspiciously British circa 1880-1900) …………….Uncertain. This mark might be one used by Cunningham and Company, Pittsburgh, PA (c. 1879-1907), although I have doubts about it. That firm was also known as “Cunninghams & Company” at various times during it’s operation. The name was evidently changed slightly to become “Cunninghams & Company, Limited” in 1886, and continued to operate as such until approximately 1907. Successor to Cunningham & Ihmsen (See “C & I” mark). See next four entries.
- C.CO………………Cunningham(s) and Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1879-1907)
- C & C LIM………Cunningham(s) and Company, Limited, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1886-1907)
- C & CO……………Cunningham(s) and Company, Pittsburgh, PA (c.1879-1907)
- C & CO LIM……..Cunningham(s) and Company, Limited, Pittsburgh, PA (1886-1907)
- CCC (3 C’s nested inside each other, see pic)……….Continental Can Company. Mostly seen on tableware, especially on the bases of drinking glasses (juice glasses, tea glasses, tumblers). Continental Can Company, a producer of several types of packaging, took over the Hazel Atlas Glass Company in 1957. Continental sold most of the H-A plants in 1964. It is unclear exactly what years the “CCC” mark was used on glassware, but it is clear that at least some of the new molds made for glassware during the period of 1957-1964 were engraved with the CCC mark instead of the H-A mark. The mark is frequently seen on the bottom of glassware in the popular pattern “Optic Dot”, sometimes called “Thumbprint”.
- C C & Co (monogram)……….Carl Conrad & Company, St. Louis, Missouri. Carl Conrad was a distributor of bottles made for Anheuser-Busch Brewing Company. Conrad was not an actual glass company. Best guess for the time period during which bottles were made with this base marking would be from about 1876 to 1885. Most were made in a distinctive pale blue-aqua glass. Some of these bottles also carry side embossing including the brand name “Budweiser”, although many are unembossed except for the CC&Co basemark. Some specimens carry a glassmaker mark as well (such as D.O.C.— D. O. Cunningham Glass Co., Pittsburgh) but many of these bottles without a glassmaker ID were probably made by one of several local St. Louis-area glass factories, such as Lindell Glass Company, Mississippi Glass Company, Belleville Glass Company, or Illinois Glass Company. (Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company did not come into existence until 1886, at which time the Belleville Glass Company was purchased by Adolphus Busch).
- C.C.G.CO…………..Cream City Glass Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1888-1894). May also stand for Colorado City Glass Company, Colorado City, Colorado (1889-1893)
- C Co MILW………….Chase Valley Glass Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1880)
- C.D. & P. T. CO. ……………..see next entry.
- C. D. & P. TEL. CO. (on glass telephone line insulators)………….Central District & Printing Telegraph Company, Pittsburgh, PA. This firm was organized in 1874, and lasted under that exact name until 1913, the name being changed slightly to Central District Telephone Company at that time. In 1918 it became part of the Bell Telephone Company of Pennsylvania. All insulators seen with this marking are CD 121 “toll” (long distance) style, most commonly seen in pale aqua glass, and generally appear to date from sometime within the 1895-1915 period. Most, if not all, were made by Brookfield Glass Company, Brooklyn, New York.
- C G atop a triangle (pointed “hill”)…………Columbine Glass Company, Denver, Colorado
- C.G.C…………….Consumers Glass Company, Ville St. Pierre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (1917-2002). This mark is confirmed on the heel of a clear soda bottle with a 1985 date code. However, I don’t know the exact date range when this mark was used. See “C in a triangle”, and next entry.
- CGC (monogram, letters closely entertwined). This is either Consumers Glass Company, OR Glass Containers Corporation. Please see ”G C” webpage here, where this mark is pictured). If you have information on the proper attribution of this mark, please contact me!
- C.G.Co…………….This mark was evidently used by four (or more) different glass companies. Most bottles with this mark along the lower heel are believed to be products of the Coshocton Glass Company, Coshocton, OH (1902-1923, a prolific manufacturer of beer & soda bottles); other possibilities include Canton Glass Company, Canton, OH (1883-1890) & Marion, Indiana (1890-1958) [See Canton]; Chattanooga Glass Company, Chattanooga, Tennsessee (1901-1988); and Colorado City Glass Company, Colorado City, CO (1889-1893). ALSO, please see the two following entries!
- C.G.Co…………….California Glass Company, California, Pennsylvania (c.1890s). Harvey Teal, a researcher and historian on South Carolina history, (author of a published book on the SC Dispensary flasks) reports that he has documents proving that some of these dispensary flasks dating from the c.1893-1897 period marked “C.G.CO.” were definitely made by California Glass, although Phillip Kenneth Huggins (The South Carolina Dispensary-1997), attributed the marking to the Carolina Glass Company, Columbia, SC (1902-1913).
- C.G.Co.(on “POLAR BEAR” pattern glass bread tray) …………..believed to be Crystal Glass Company, Bridgeport, Ohio (1883-1907). This particular Crystal Glass Company was started in c.1868 at Pittsburgh, and later moved to Bridgeport. The C.G.Co. initials which are known on the bread tray from approximately 1885 (and may be on other items in the “Polar Bear” pattern as well) were attributed to Crystal Glass Co. by Ruth Webb Lee in her groundbreaking reference work “Early American Pressed Glass” (1931 and later editions) from a personal conversation she had with an elderly knowledgable Pittsburgh-area glassblower. Crystal Glass Company made mostly pressed glass tableware items (usually classed under “Early American Pattern Glass”, known to collectors as simply EAPG) and was not a producer of blown commercial containers, so this mark is virtually certain to be UNRELATED to the “C.G.Co.” seen commonly on beer bottles.
- C.G.M.CO…………..Campbell Glass Mnfg. Company, West Berkeley, California (1885). Initials might also stand for the Cumberland Glass Manufacturing Company, Bridgeton, NJ (1880-1920), or Cohansey Glass Manufacturing Company, Bridgeport, NJ (1870-1900).
- C.G.W……………..Campbell Glass Works, West Berkeley, California (1884-1885), on certain bottles known to be from California, especially the San Francisco area. This company is given as the source of the “C.G.W.” mark by Toulouse. Since it operated for less than four months, and Toulouse gives no information on why he believes this mark can only be attributed to Campbell (other than the fact that the initials do fit), I am very skeptical that all bottles with this mark originate from that company, especially bottles and flasks with this mark found in the East. Another possible source (in my opinion, which may be no better than Toulouse’s!) could be any one of several Eastern region glass companies, for instance Clyde Glass Works, Clyde, New York; Cumberland Glass Works/Cumberland Glass Mnfg. Co., Bridgeton, New Jersey; or Camden Glass Works, Camden, New Jersey (1875-1884).
- C & H…………Coffin & Hay, Hammonton, New Jersey.
- CH (along the lower heel of bottle, preceded and followed by various numbers)….Graham Glass Company, Checotah, Oklahoma glass plant. See Graham.
- C H (C with an H inside it)……….Cristalerias Cattorini Hermanos, Buenos Aires, Argentina, South America. (1952-to date). This mark is most frequently seen in the US on the base or heel of imported emerald green (“forest green”) beverage bottles, often marked “WATER” and/or “JUICE”. These containers were often saved and re-used as refrigerator bottles. I believe most, of not all, of those bottles were made in the 1960s or very early 1970s, but some may date later. The trademark is evidently still in use and appears on the Emhart punt marks data base .
- Chas.Boldt Co……..Charles Boldt Glass Company/Charles Boldt Glass Manufacturing Company, Cincinnati, OH (1900-1919) and Huntington, West Virginia (1900-1929). See “C.B.CO.” and “C.B.G.CO.” marks.
- Chas. H. Fletcher’s / Castoria……………….. please see Fletcher’s Castoria page here.
- CHATT. …………..Chattanooga Glass Company, Chattanooga, Tennessee (1901-1988). Period of use of this particular Chattanooga mark is uncertain. I have personally seen it embossed on the base of an amber machine-made medicinal flask, and just by general appearance, I would estimate that it dated from sometime between 1920 and 1940. More detailed information on this mark would be appreciated.
- Chess piece (Pawn)………see Capstan Glass Company.
- C.H.B.CO…………………Chicago Heights Bottle Company, Chicago, Illinois (1912-1913). These initials are confirmed to exist on at least one bottle (courtesy of Bill Lockhart) and are almost certainly that of the Chicago Heights concern. For another mark attributed to this short-lived company, see “SIGNET”.
- Chesebrough / Manuf’g. Co. Cd. / New – York. This marking (or a similar variation) is seen embossed on many jars that held Vaseline (brand of petroleum jelly). See this page for more information.
- C. & I…………Cunningham and Ihmsen, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1865-1878)
- C. & I. Co……..Same as above.
- CL (C partially overlapping an L)…………………..Carr-Lowrey Glass Company, Baltimore, Maryland (1889-2003). Maker of a tremendous variety of perfume and other cosmetic containers, many in unusual, rich shades of color. Also see “C.L.G.CO.”
- C.L.F…………….C.L.Flaccus Glass Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1879-1928). Seen on the base of a clear prescription/medicinal bottle. See next 2 entries, also see “F in a keystone” mark.
- C.L.F.G.CO………..Same as above. Occurs on the base of South Carolina Dispensary bottles. See next entry.
- C.L.Flaccus/Pittsburgh………..C.L.Flaccus Glass Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (offices); manufacturing plants were located at Leechburg, Tarentum, and Beaver Falls, PA (1879-1928). Seen on base of wax sealer fruit jar.
- C.L.G.CO………….Carr-Lowrey Glass Company, Baltimore, Maryland (1889-2003). Mark was used primarily before about 1920. Often misread as “C.L.C.CO”. Carr-Lowrey made many perfume and other cosmetic bottles in beautiful shades of color, including more “unusual” shades such as teal green, teal blue, and turquoise. See “CL / C partially overlapping an L” entry.
- Clyde…………….Clyde Glass Works, Clyde, New York (1868-1912)
- Clyde Glass Works…………Clyde Glass Works, Clyde, New York (1868-1912)
- C.MFG.C…………..Unknown (Seen on base of fruit jar, c.1870s).
- C MILW……………See “C Co MILW”.
- C-O G Co………….Unknown. Reported on milk bottle, per Jeffrey Giarde (Glass Milk Bottles: Their Makers and Marks).
- Cohansey………….Cohansey Glass Mnfg. Company (1870-1900). Factory: Bridgeton, New Jersey. Business office in Philadelphia, PA.
- COLO.C.G.CO…………..Colorado City Glass Company, Colorado City, CO (1889-1893)
- COLO.CITY G. CO……..Colorado City Glass Company, Colorado City, CO (1889-1893)
- COLO.G.W. ………..Colorado Glass Works Company, Golden, Colorado (1887-1888)
- Colo.G.W.Co…………same as above.
- C.R. ……………..Curling, Ringwalt & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1857-1863)
- Crescent moon shape (shown) …………….. uncertain. This mark is seen on the bases of pharmaceutical / prescription bottles, both on unmarked “generic” examples, as well as lettered bottles from various druggists in Vermont and less often from surrounding states (for instance, MA). I assume this is from an unidentified glass manufacturer in the VT, MA or NH area. Any info would be appreciated! (Thanks to VT bottle collector/specialist Barry Conolly for bringing this particular mark to my attention!)
- Crisa……………………….Crisa, now a division of Libbey Glass, with three factories located in Monterrey, Mexico. This is a large producer of table glassware such as tumblers, goblets, wine glasses, beer mugs and other glassware heavily used in restaurants, bars and other institutional settings. They are also known for producing electrical telephone insulators, including CD 107 style units.
- Cross (double-lined cross, abstract design similar to “fourchee cross” or “crosslet”, as shown) ………………… seen on heel of
Perrier mineral water bottles. This mark used by VDL Company, Vergèze, Languedoc-Roussillon, France. VDL Co., who produced all of the glass bottles for Perrier mineral water, was acquired by Owens-Illinois Inc., who now runs this operation effective August 1, 2011, and new Perrier bottles are now carrying the “O-I” mark on the heel. (I assume that the “O-I” mark was instituted very soon after the acquisition, but do not know exactly when the bottle molds were re-tooled with the mark of Owens-Illinois).
- Cross emblem (logo, hallmark, design, mark) on the base of pre-1900 containers………………see “X” entry.
- Crounse-Hinds …………………………………. Name seen embossed on glass traffic signal lighting lenses. Crounse-Hinds, manufacturer of traffic signal systems. Examples are actually products of, in most cases, Corning Glass Works or Kopp Glass Company. Interesting site for more info on traffic lights: Crounse-Hinds Traffic signal collector site.
- Crownford China Co. …………………………see this page.
- C. S. & Co…………………..see next entry.
- C.S.& Co. LTD (reported as ‘LD’ on some bottles) …………..Cannington, Shaw & Co. Limited, St. Helens, Lancashire, England (1875-1913)
- C.V.No.1 MILW………Chase Valley Glass Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1880-1881)
- C.V.Co.No.2 MILW………Chase Valley Glass Company No.2, Milwaukee, WI (1880-1881)
- C.V.G.CO………….Chase Valley Glass Company, Milwaukee, WI (1880-1881)
- C.W.& CO……….Unknown. Seen on base of blackglass ale bottles, probably British.
- C.W. & J. ………..Unknown. This mark may actually be “G W & J”, but I am keeping this listing as well, as the embossing is faint on some bottles, and the “G” appears more like a “C” on at least one mold. Initials are seen on base of blackglass ale bottles of British origin. Lettering could possibly be “W. & J. G.”
- D…………………Unknown. Seen on base of amber strap-side flask.
- D within a diamond………….Dominion Glass Company, (known as Domglas after 1978), Pointe Ste Charles (Montreal), Quebec, and other locations at Hamilton, Ontario; Wallaceburg, Ontario; Redcliff, Alberta; Burnaby, British Columbia; Bramalea, Ontario. (1913-to date). The “D within a diamond” mark was reportedly first used by Dominion in 1928 and was used at least into the 1970s or 1980s, perhaps later on a few items. (If anyone knows when this trademark was completely phased out on their glass items, please contact me). The mark used from 1913 to 1928 was evidently just a plain diamond with no letter inside (at least on their glass electrical insulators), but I don’t know if the mark used on their bottles followed the same exact timeline. See “Diamond logo” farther down on this page. For more information on Dominion and the marks and codes they used, this link supplies a more in-depth discussion: Parks Canada document on Dominion Glass Company bottle mould numbers.
- D in a keystone……………Denver Glass Bottle Company, Denver, Colorado (1946-1951)
- D.B.MFG.CO. ……………….almost certainly Dodson-Braun Manufacturing Company, St. Louis, Missouri (c.1898-1914+) This embossing was a mystery to me for a long while, and had been reported (by at least 3 separate contacts) as seen on a small, round, clear (or with slight amethyst tint) bottle that evidently held some type of food condiment. Recent info submitted by Chad Fitzgerald indicates Dodson-Braun as the source of this mark. D.B. Mfg Co., according to info published in Ketchup, Pickles, Sauces (1980) by Betty Zumwalt, was a food products firm, specializing in packaging pickles, as well as various relishes, sauces and other condiments.
- Dean Foster & CO……….Dean, Foster & Company, Boston, Massachusetts (c.1870s-c.1900) and Chicago, Illinois (1883-1893). Seen on the base of a nurser bottle. See D.F.& CO.
- De S. G. Co. ……………………DeSteiger Glass Company, LaSalle, Illinois (c.1879-c.1896). This mark variation reported to me by Joe McAllister. (See “D.S.G.Co.”)
- DES.PAT. (with several numbers, usually 5 or 6 digits)……………………..There are a number of bottles with this marking on the bottom, especially Owens-Illinois bottles mostly from the 1930s or 1940s. For instance, DES. PAT. 92148. This means “Bottle design was patented and assigned #92148″ by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC. A search online might bring up more information on some of these bottles, for instance searching the “google patents” database with that number shows that the patent was issued for that particular design in 1934. Keep in mind this does not mean that the particular bottle itself was made in that exact year……since a design may be used for several years afterward.
- D.F.& CO……….Dean, Foster & Company, Boston, Massachusetts (c.1870s-c.1900) and Chicago, Illinois (1883-1893). This company evidently made primarily prescription/druggist ware. See above entry, as well as “A.M.F.& CO” for a related mark.
- D.F.& D………..Dean, Foster & Dawley. See above 2 entries. This company was either an earlier, or closely related company to the one above.
- D.G.Co………….Diamond Glass Company, Royersford, PA (1885-1990).
- Diamond logo (on glass electrical insulators; no letters or numbers inside the diamond)……….Diamond Glass Company, Montreal, Quebec (1891-1913). See Glass Insulator Manufacturers page.
- Diamond logo (on bottles; no letters or numbers inside)…………. in some cases, containers with this mark might be products of Diamond Glass Company, Montreal, Quebec (1891-1913) which became Dominion Glass Company and still later, Domglas. In a few instances, a plain diamond might indicate Illinois Glass Company (if the “I” in the “I inside a diamond” mark is invisible), BUT I believe the great majority of bottles with a plain diamond found in the United States are products of the Diamond Glass Company, Royersford, PA (1885-1990).
- Diamond (or other geometric shapes, including square, oval, circle, keystone, triangle, etc) with a letter inside………. Please look for a relevant entry listed under the specific letter, although I do have a very few entries that are also cross-referenced under the shape.
- Diamond with a “D” inside…………….Diamond Glass Company/Dominion Glass Company, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. See “D in a diamond” entry.
- Diamond with an “H” inside (seen on elegant tableware, stemware, high quality decorative glassware, not utilitarian container glass)……………….. A. H. Heisey Glass Company; please see “H inside a vertical diamond” entry on page two.
- Diamond I …………………….. Illinois Glass Company, Alton, Illinois.
- Diamond with an “I” inside…………Illinois Glass Company, Alton, Illinois. Please see “I within a Diamond” page.
- Diamond with letter & number(s) combination within it…………….Illinois Glass Company, Alton, IL, probably produced most, if not all, of these containers. Please see “I within a Diamond” page.
- Diamond with 2-, 3- or 4-digit number inside………Illinois Glass Company, Alton, IL (1873-1929). (Numbers found within a diamond on several types of bottles have been matched with catalog numbers found in Illinois Glass Co. bottle catalogs.) Exact period when this type of mark was used is uncertain, but probably sometime in the 1910-1920s period. Please also see “I within a Diamond” mark webpage here. Other companies that might have produced some of the bottles found with these basemarks include Diamond/Dominion Glass Company, Montreal, Quebec, Canada & other locations (later Domglas); and the Diamond Glass Company, Royersford, PA (1885-1990)
- Diamond superimposed over an oval [letter O] and an I…………..Owens-Illinois Glass Company (1929-to date – formerly with headquarters at Toledo, OH; now at Perrysburg, OH). Click on link for more info and illustrations of marks used by Owens-Illinois).
- Dillon G. Co……….Dillon Glass Company, plants at Converse, Indiana and Fairmount, IN (1889-1894)
- DIXIE……………..Dixie Glass Company, Tallapoosa, Georgia (1898-c.1906)
- DOAN (or possibly “DOVAN”), as shown in pic, right ………..embossed mark seen on base of decorative cobalt blue bottle with raised figures of Greek or Roman nudes (mythological gods) along with vertical columns/pillars. Unknown origin. If you have information on the source of this mark, please write!
- D.O.C……………..D.(Dominick) O. Cunningham Glass Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1882-1931). A prolific producer of soda bottles, especially Hutchinson-style sodas (“hutches”). The mark seems to be seen primarily on handmade bottles manufactured (generally speaking) before about 1910.
- Dominion………………..Dominion Glass Company (now Domglas), Canada. Seen on electrical insulators. See “D in a diamond” entry.
- Do-Ray………….DoRay (or Doray) Lamp Company, Chicago, Illinois. Mark seen embossed on glass automobile taillight lenses, traffic signal lenses, railroad lenses and similar items. No information on dates of operation. Circa 1950s-1960s?
- D. P. B. ……………Initials as reported on base of crown-lip, light green-aqua beer bottle, circa 1900-1920. Probably stands for the Deer Park Brewing Company, Port Jervis, New York. Thanks to Michael Mackey for reporting this mark.
- Dr. W. B. Caldwell’s, Monticello, Illinois……………. See “Caldwell’s” entry, above.
- Dr. Y.Y. B. Caldwell’s, Monticello, Illinois…………..See “Caldwell’s” entry, above.
- D.S.G.Co…………..DeSteiger Glass Company, LaSalle, Illinois (c.1879-c.1896)
- DURAGLAS…………………Owens Illinois Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio (1929-to date). Trademark used by Owens-Illinois Glass Company, after 1940. Most glass containers with the Duraglas brand embossing appear to date from the 1940s-1970s. See “Diamond superimposed over an oval and I” and “I within an O” marks. Click here for more info on Owens-Illinois Glass Company. Other marks used by Owens-Illinois include OWENS, LOWEX and KIMBLE as well as many others.
- Dyottville Glass Works……….Dyottville Glass Works, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (c.1833-1900+). Factory had long been in operation, previously known as the Kensington Glass Works, before becoming known as Dyottville. Besides their early pictorial flasks (on which the name is found on the front or reverse of the bottle), other bottles found with this marking on the base are the cylinder whiskies which probably date mostly from the 1850s-1880s period.
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