GLASS MANUFACTURERS’ MARKS ON BOTTLES & OTHER GLASSWARE ~ Page 1
Welcome! I’m interested in the history of the glass industry in the United States, especially concerning the manufacturing of bottles, electrical insulators and tableware. On these five pages I’ve attempted to compile a list of glass manufacturers’ identification marks found on (primarily) American bottles and jars. These marks are sometimes called “punt marks”, especially within the bottle-making trade. (Click here to check another collector’s site that lists a few Australian and English marks). Also included are marks seen on other types of glassware including tableware and industrial glass items such as railroad lantern lenses. Entries on some of the more commonly encountered brand and company names (for instance, Bromo-Seltzer) seen embossed on bottles are also included, as I frequently get questions about them.
Note: the picture above left is that of the trademark used by Owens-Illinois Glass Company from 1929 into the mid- and late 1950s. This is a typical example, as seen on the bottom of an emerald green apothecary jar from the 1930s or 1940s. I receive more inquiries about this mark than any other shown on the site, so I’m picturing it here at the beginning of the five “Glass Bottle Marks” alphabetical listings pages. It is listed as “Diamond and oval superimposed (entwined) with I in center” although oftentimes, especially on smaller bottles, the center “I” is poorly delineated or virtually illegible.
Note: For a very brief, basic discussion on the material “glass”, (without alot of scientific “jargon”), please check out my new webpage here: What is glass?? .
Also, please note: When searching these pages, it may be helpful to press the CTRL+F keys (Find) on your keyboard to scan more quickly for a specific glass factory name, city and/or state name, or initials contained within the text.
Attention: For a very informative, comprehensive site with lots of detailed discussion on various aspects of antique bottles, including their many types, colors, methods of manufacture, uses, and clues to dating them, I strongly encourage you to check out Bill Lindsey’s Historic Glass Bottle Identification and Information Website (hosted by Sha.org). His site is a MONUMENTAL “work in progress”, and has a wealth of great information posted!!
The majority of the marks listed here are found on older bottles, but commonly seen trademarks used by present-day glass manufacturing concerns in the United States are also included.
For a comprehensive list of modern glass bottle manufacturers’ marks from around the world, you might also wish to check out the following link showing many of the more recent marks (properly called “punt marks” on their website) which are sometimes seen on bottles imported to the United States. Click here: Bucher Emhart punt mark database (this is a pdf file).
A website that I would heartily recommend, devoted to dairy-related antiques, is “dairyantiques.com” which I understand (as of 2017) is no longer “live” on the internet. However, using the “Wayback Machine” internet archive, please try viewing the site at the following link. I would encourage any milk bottle collectors to try searching their list of marks here: Milk Bottle Marks .
Another webpage which I recommend, especially to collectors of tableware and art glass, illustrates many glassmakers’ marks frequently seen on carnival glassware and other upscale glass. Although some of these marks are listed on my site, some of them are not. So be sure to check out Carnival Glass Marks !
Another site with an extensive list of marks is here: http://www.carnivalheaven.com/carnivalglass103/id76.htm .
Here is another site, this one specializing on information concerning shotglasses: Marks seen on shotglasses . Most, if not all, of the marks illustrated there are frequently seen on other types of glassware as well, which makes the page quite helpful to a broader spectrum of collecting fields.
ANTIQUE BEER & ALE BOTTLES
Researcher/historian Tod Von Mechow has compiled a large quantity of in-depth information on antique beer bottles, including both pottery and glass bottles. I would encourage anyone interested in makers’ marks on beer bottles (and soda bottles) to check out his site….. he has a very extensive list with alot of great material on obscure glass and pottery companies here: http://www.sodasandbeers.com/SABBottleManufBeerSoda.htm
Usually embossed on the base, marks may also appear on the lower heel area on certain types of bottles, especially sodas. On earlier flasks, fruit jars, and soda bottles, and especially examples produced in the mid-nineteenth century period (1840s-1860s), the full factory name or initials may be embossed across the front.
This list primarily includes marks that represent the actual glass company that made the container. Many marks are encountered that indicate the company whose product was contained within it, or are trademarks (“brand names”) that give no indication of who actually made the glass, and those are (with quite a few exceptions) , not included in my list.
From the standpoint of most collectors of antique bottles, the name and location of the company the bottle was made for, and the name of the product that was originally contained in the bottle (one or both of which may be embossed on the bottle) is often considered to be of more interest or importance than the glass factory where the bottle was actually manufactured. However, this site is geared with more emphasis on the actual glassmakers themselves. Hopefully this database will be of some help to those who are attempting to assign an approximate date range to a particular bottle, assuming it carries an identifiable glass manufacturer’s mark.
NOTE: If initial(s) embossed on the base of a bottle match a firm name (other than a glass factory) on the front, the basemark will more than likely not be a glass manufacturer’s mark and so may not be listed here. This is very frequently the case, especially with soda, mineral water, beer and other bottles of the 1880-1930 period, in which the initial(s) of the “end user” (such as the bottler, brewery, drug manufacturer, or other firm for which the bottle was made) appear embossed on the base.
Please keep in mind that some marks (esp. initials of early glass companies) may vary slightly in appearance and punctuation from one bottle to another. For instance, they sometimes occur with or without periods after each letter. These variations in punctuation were common and probably reflected the whim of the mold engraver, thus having little or no importance (i.e. for assigning date ranges) especially on marks of pre-1900 bottles. For the most part, I have not attempted to list fine distinctions for marks that are found both with and without periods.
Another source of confusion was the common practice of engraving the “G” (especially in the 1880-1920 period) to appear very close in similarity to a “C”, the only difference between the two being a small “tail” pointing in a downward or “southeasterly” direction on the lower right-hand side of the letter G. Thus, the mark “A.B.G.M.Co.” might be misconstrued to read “A.B.C.M.Co.” Also, the abbreviation “Co” (Company) sometimes may be found embossed with either an upper- or lower-case “O” on various bottles made by the same manufacturer.
Many bottles carry only a number (or numbers) on the base. These marks usually served as some type of mold identification, indicating a particular mold used by a glass factory. If a number of identical molds were produced for making a certain type of bottle, they would often be serially numbered (such as 1 to 12). Some numbers served as date codes, or as some other type of internal code used by the factory. In the great majority of cases, bottles with only numbers on the base are difficult, if not impossible, to attribute to a specific glass maker. See my webpage here with more info on numbers seen on bottles.
I will occasionally be adding more data to these pages as I uncover more accurate information. The info presented on this site is the most accurate I’ve been able to find at present, but any comments (pro or con), clarifications or corrections (preferably backed up with reliable source information) would be sincerely appreciated! Because of the volume of emails I receive, I may or may not respond to questions about marks not listed here. You are more than welcome to contact me, but please be aware that I’m not an appraisal service, and I may not respond to queries along the general lines of “what is this jar worth?” and “is this bottle worth the hassle of listing on ebay?”.
Generally speaking, I may not be able to answer questions concerning bottles with only mold or catalog numbers embossed on the base. (Please see my webpage on numbers on the bottom of bottles). You see, THOUSANDS of bottles carry nothing but a number on the base (or heel) , and this information (in most cases) does not help ID the source or age………nearly all glass factories used mold numbers on their containers at one time or another. However, the general style, shape and glass color of a container can give strong clues to approximate age.
Much of the basic information here on the “Marks” pages comes from research by Julian H. Toulouse published in his classic, indispensable and ground-breaking reference work Bottle Makers and their Marks (1971). That book is the best reference work ever published on glass manufacturers’ marks on bottles, but it does contain many errors which have been discovered over the last several decades since it’s publication.
Other sources of information I have used (including reference books, magazine articles, websites, and in some cases, email or voice communications) would include: Helen McKearin, Rhea Mansfield Knittle, Stephen Van Rennselaer, Harry Hall White, Alice Creswick, Dick Roller, William S. Walbridge, Cecil Munsey, Roger Peters, Gene Blasi, Adeline Pepper, Arthur G. Peterson, Bob Stahr, Fred Padgett, Rex L. Wilson, John O’Dell, Bill Lockhart, Jeffrey L. Giarde, David Bethman, Betty Zumwalt, Jay W. Hawkins, Peter R. Guetig, Conrad Selle, Tod Von Mechow, Don Dzuro, Johnnie W. Fletcher, Norman “Ted” Oppelt, Dick Cole, Harvey Teal, Dean Six, Tom Neff, Albert Morin, John P. Adams, Philip K. Huggins, Jack K. Paquette, Bill Lindsey, Carol Serr, Mark Newton, and Lee Brewer, as well as many others. (Eventually, I may add a page on this site with lists of books by some of the above-named persons which I found to be of most value. In the meantime, you might try an internet search for more information on these names……there is a wealth of information out there, with many books in libraries and/or online pertaining to glass history, antique glass collecting, glass container manufacturing, and related fields). This site also utilizes, to some degree, my own research and observations over several years of collecting & studying antique bottles, insulators and other glassware. I hope this list will be of assistance to those interested in antique bottles and other glass containers made in the United States and the history behind the factories that manufactured them.
I am striving to add more articles on this site relating to glass and glass collecting, both of a general nature, and addressing certain collecting “niches”, as time and energy permits! I hope you will return often to this site!! THANK YOU!!
NOTICE: (this paragraph added October 15, 2014). It has been increasingly more difficult to keep up with answering emails and posts concerning glass bottle markings and related information. I receive emails virtually every day. In about 50 to 60 percent of the cases, after I answer a query by email, I do not receive the slightest reply or acknowledgement, not even a brief “thank you”. (I believe a lot of the replies are ending up in the recipients’ email “SPAM” or “TRASH” folders. If you send me a query please always check your spam or “junk mail” folders in case an email was not directed to your ” INBOX”! )
Because of this I am going to have to stop answering all but questions of the very widest interest to the collecting public. If it’s a question that is already answered somewhere on this site, then a *keyword search* will have to suffice (look along the top right-hand area of any page for the search box), and I may not reply with an individual answer. I apologize if you write to me via email, or post on one of these pages and do not get a personalized reply! Also, only a small percentage of comments received are actually published on this site, since if every one was answered and published, my site would soon be loaded down with hundreds of comments that could possibly cause the pages to begin to load more slowly for those with slower or older computers, and/or dialup connections. Thank you very much! David
- A…………………The letter “A” is sometimes merely a mold letter (identifying a particular mold used by a glass factory). If it is an abbreviation for a glass factory, it could stand for one of several companies. One possibility: Agnew & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1854-1894+). See “A & CO.” mark. Another possibility would be Adams & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1861-1891). Originally Adams, Macklin & Company (1851-1861), they did manufacture at least one type of fruit jar circa 1866, lettered “Adams & Co./Manufacturers/Pittsburgh,Pa.” on the front. However, the great bulk of their glass production seems to have been pressed pattern glass and high-quality tableware and novelties, especially throughout the later years of their operation. In 1891, they joined the merger known as the United States Glass Company. Note: If the bottle is machine-made, the letter “A” would indicate a much more recent company, perhaps Arkansas Glass Container Corporation, Jonesboro, Arkansas (1948-to date). See “A.G.C. in state of Arkansas”.
- A (stylized triangle with “A” as central motif)………….Arkansas Glass Container Corporation (Arkansas Glass), Jonesboro, Arkansas (1948-to date). I am not positive this mark has actually been used on containers. It has been displayed on their website. If you have up-to-date information on this mark, please contact me!
- A & CO…………Adams & Company, Pittsburgh, PA (1861-1891) and/or Agnew & Company, also of Pittsburgh (c.1854-1894+). 1) Adams & Company is considered as the most likely producer of several “Clasped Hands” figured flasks from the 1860s bearing this mark on the front, as attributed by Jay Hawkins, researcher on early Pittsburgh glassmakers. If so, they were produced in the early years of that company before they began to concentrate (primarily) on pattern glass tableware. 2) In reference to Agnew & Company, there was a series of glass companies in the Pittsburgh area in which the Agnew family was involved, beginning as early as 1842 with Chambers & Agnew. Later, approximately 1854, the firm became John Agnew & Company (1854-1870); then, John Agnew & Son (1871-1876) and later simply Agnew & Company (1876-1892+). The most recent incarnation seems to have been “The Agnew Company”, which was in operation in 1894 (a bottle catalog from this company exists, dated 1894) which may have continued on for some time afterwards. Jars that are marked “JOHN AGNEW & SON / PITTSBURG PA” presumably date from about 1871 to 1876, and those marked “AGNEW & CO / PITTSBURG PA” would date from c. 1876 into the early 1890s. Also, please see “A” and “Agnew & Co”. entries.
- A in a circle………Armstrong Cork Company (Glass Division), Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Millville, New Jersey [former Whitall Tatum Co. plant] ; Dunkirk, Indiana [former Hart Glass Mnfg Co. plant]. Mark was used from 1938-1969 on bottles and insulators. If there is a line underneath the “circled A”, this indicates the bottle was produced at the Dunkirk plant.
- A in a diamond…….Unknown
- A , entwined with a bird emblem with wings outstretched; appears as if flying through the “A”. The logo actually represents a crow (a play on the company name) with glass marbles clutched in it’s talons and beak, but may be mistaken for an eagle or other bird of prey…………………..Akro Agate Company, Akron, Ohio (1910-1914) and Clarksburg, West Virginia (1914-1951). Maker of toy glass marbles as well as ashtrays, vases, children’s dishes and many other unusual novelty items. Akro Agate items are found in a wide variety of opaque and “slag” (marbled, multicolored) glass.
- A. Arbogast, Pitts…………..Alexander Arbogast / Arbogast & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c. 1860-c.1863). Mark is pictured in Bottles on the Western Frontier by Rex L. Wilson (1981:113), seen on a cylinder whiskey. See “Arbogast & Co. Pitts Pa”.
- A B (letters are not connected)………………uncertain, either American Bottle Company or Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company. Please see AB (connected) page, “AB (connected) Co”, and “A.B.CO” entries.
- AB (letters connected) ………………….. Please see this page where this mark is discussed in more detail.
- AB (letters connected) Co…………….. uncertain: either American Bottle Company (1905-1929) or Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Company (1886-c.1926). Also, please see this page, and “A.B.CO.” mark.
- A.B.C……………..Atlantic Bottle Company, Brackenridge, Pennsylvania (c.1916-1930). First only a distributor (pre-1916), Atlantic was later an actual manufacturer of bottles. The Brackenridge plant was purchased by Owens-Illinois in 1930.
- A.B.CO……………….. American Bottle Company (1905-1929). Chicago, Illinois (office – 1905-1916); Toledo, Ohio (office – 1916-1929). Glass plants were located at Streator, Illinois; Newark, Ohio; Belleville, Illinois; Massillon, Ohio & Wooster, Ohio. The American Bottle Company was purchased by Owens Bottle Machine Company in 1916 (with some of the plants being closed soon afterwards) but the Streator and Newark plants continued to operate under the American Bottle Co. name until 1929, when they became part of the merger that resulted in Owens-Illinois Glass Company. (For Streator and Newark plant marks from 1916 to 1929, see “17N” and “16S” entries). Most, if not all, of the “AB”, “AB CO.” and “A.B.CO.” marked bottles are believed to date between 1905 and 1916. However, it is possible that some bottles with these markings might date between 1916 and 1929, but, if so, could only have been made at either the Streator or Newark plants. See also “AB (letters connected)” page, here.
- A.B.G.CO…………..Adolphus Busch Glass Mnfg. Company, see “A.B.G.M.CO.” Also, see the “AB (connected)” mark on this page.
- A.B.G.C.ST.L……….Adolphus Busch Glass Mnfg. Company (Presumably produced at their St. Louis glass factory location post-1891). See next entry.
- A.B.G.M.CO…………Adolphus Busch Glass Mnfg. Company, plants at Belleville, Illinois (1886-c.1905) and St.Louis, MO (c.1891-c. 1926). The Belleville factory became part of American Bottle Company c.1905. (See AB (connected) and A.B.CO. marks).
- Acorn logo (shown)………Bellaire Bottle Company (Works), Bellaire, Ohio (c.1885-1921+). Logo is occasionally seen on the base of clear glass prescription/medicine bottles. Thanks to David Bethman for emailing me with info on the source of this mysterious acorn mark! He reports that the mark appears on a Bellaire Bottle Company letterhead shown in a book by Scott Tyson called “Glass Houses of the 1800s”.
- Adlam’s Patent (on base of jars)…….. Several different jars are known with such embossings as “ADLAM’S PATENT” or “PAT. GLASS PAIL / BOSTON MASS” on base. They came with unusual metal screw lids; some lids are marked “ADLAM PATENT PAIL”. Patents were issued to Samuel Adlam, Jr. of Boston. These jars evidently date from the 1880s or 1890s. Currently, the glass manufacturer that made these jars is unknown / unidentified.
- A. & D. H. C. ………Alexander & David H. Chambers, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1843-c.1889). This was one of the most prolific glass companies in Pittsburgh during the mid-to-late 1800s. Huge quantities of bottles, flasks, and fruit jars were made, as well as window glass. Many local, regional, and nationally distributed sodas, mineral waters, beers, bitters, tonics, and other types of products were packaged in bottles made by A&DHC. Most commonly, bottles with this mark seem to date from the 1870s and 1880s, but the mark was probably in use at least from around the start of the Civil War, perhaps a bit earlier.
- Adams & Co…………. See “A” entry.
- AG (stylized letters forming an anchor)……..Anchor Glass Container Corporation. See “Anchor….” entry, farther down on this page.
- A G C (letters are diagonally arranged, from “Northwest” to “Southeast”)……….Arkansas Glass Container Corporation, Jonesboro, AR (1948-to-date).
- A G C (within outline of state of Arkansas) ………… Arkansas Glass Container Corporation, Jonesboro, Arkansas (1948-to date)
- A. G. CO………………. Evidently used by at least three different glass companies including: Atlanta Glass Company, Atlanta, Georgia (1887-c.1892), Annapolis Glass Company, Annapolis, Maryland (1885-c.1887) and Alexandria Glass Company, Alexandria, Virginia (1905-1916). The mark appears on the base of certain liquor flasks, soda bottles and other types of containers. Also, on the face of certain fruit jars, the initials “A.G.CO.” might stand for the American Grocery Company. For much more in-depth analysis of this mark and several related marks, (detailing different types of bottles that carry this mark, and info on which companies are more likely candidates for attribution to a specific type of container), please check out “The A.G.Co Logo” (Bill Lockhart et al), a pdf file, here: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/AGCo.pdf
- Agnew & CO…………See “A & CO.”
- Agnew & Son………..See “A & CO.”
- A.G.W……………..in some cases, American Glass Works, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1866-1905). This company, which was officially known as “American Glass Works, Limited” after 1880, MAY have produced some glass marked “A.G.W.” during the time period of 1866-1880, although I am not aware of any definitive proof that they did. American Glass Works reportedly manufactured mostly window glass prior to 1880. After 1880, the mark was most frequently “A.G.W.L.”, although various bottles that date after 1880 (such as certain hutchinson sodas, and aqua coffin or “shoofly” flasks) do carry “A.G.W.”(no L) so I tend to believe that both mark variants were used, at times, during the 1880-1905 period. (See next two entries).
- A.G.W……………..American Glass Works, Richmond, Virginia (1908-1925) and Paden City, West Virginia (1918-c.1935). Bottles (especially crown-closure soda bottles) of the teens and 1920s from the VA and surrounding area with “A.G.W.” marked on the base are virtually certain to be products of this company (not to be confused with the earlier American Glass Works of Pittsburgh, an unrelated company). Machine-made bottles date after 1916 (Toulouse 1971:23). The Richmond plant burned in 1925 and was not rebuilt. This company also reportedly used an “A in a circle” mark on some bottles. In any case, that mark was primarily used by the Armstrong Cork Company from 1938 to 1969.
- A.G.W.L……………American Glass Works, Limited, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1880-1905). Advertisements exist which show this company produced a large line of Hutchinson type soda bottles, as well as many other bottles including beers and mineral waters. The mark “A.G.W.L.” which appears on the heel of many Hutchinsons can be definitely attributed to this company. Please see the above two entries on “A.G.W.”
- A H K………Alexander H. Kerr & Company, Altoona, Kansas (1909-1912); Sand Springs, Oklahoma (1912-19??); later plants at Huntington, West Virginia (1933-19??); Santa Ana, California (1943-19??) and several other locations. Business offices in Los Angeles after 1919. This trademark was used from c. 1944-1992 and is more commonly seen on the bottoms of commercial “packer ware”, i.e. jars and bottles for pre-packaged products sold at retail, as opposed to fruit jars made by Kerr for home canning. Also see Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation.
- Albany Glass Works…………Albany Glass Works, Albany, New York. Two types of historical flasks with the bust of Washington on them, lettered with this company name, are believed to have been manufactured sometime in the 1820s. HOWEVER, the great majority of flasks which are found with this inscription are modern reproductions dating after the 1930s, with most having been produced up into the 1960s or 1970s or even later. If you have a flask with the marking “Albany Glass Works”, it is best to assume it is a repro until proven otherwise!
- American National Can Company (1987-2000) emblem. This mark (shown in pic) is hard to classify, so is pictured on this page. This was photographed on the base of a colorless non-returnable 16-ounce soda bottle with a 1991 date code. Please also see “triangular logo” (which might be construed as a highly abstract “sailboat” representation) on page five. If you have information on the exact time frame during which these marks were used, please contact me! Thank you!
- A.M.F.& CO……..Adelbert M. Foster & Company, Boston & Chicago (1873-1928). This company is connected with D.F.& Co.
- AMPAK ………………….. mark seen on base of clear whiskey flask, apparently of very recent manufacture (c. 2000+). Ampak, based in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, maker/distributor of both glass and plastic containers.
- AM. TEL. & TEL. CO. (On glass telephone insulators)…………… American Telephone & Telegraph Company (formed in 1885), now known as “A T & T Corporation”, a subsidiary of parent company A T & T, Inc.. Most of the insulators marked with these initials are “toll” (long distance) style units, classed as “CD 121” in the Consolidated Design numbering system used by collectors. They were made by several glass manufacturers, including Hemingray Glass Company, Brookfield Glass Company, and others. They primarily date from the 1895 to 1915 period.
- Anchor, or Anchor & chain (embossed design) on mouth-blown flasks……………….The pictorial representation of an anchor appears on many liquor flasks spanning (approximately) the 1830-1910 period, and many of these seem to be found in the general Baltimore, Maryland area. It is certain they were made by more than one glassmaker. Baltimore Glass Works certainly made some of them, and no doubt other glass companies in the Baltimore area also made them. The anchor can be placed either on the base, or on the front of the bottle. A variety of these would make an interesting collection in and of themselves.
- Anchorglass (one word)…………..trademark used by Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation. Not sure on exact years used, but this name appears on paper or foil labels attached to tableware from the 1950s era.
- Anchor/H……………………….Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation.
- Anchor Hocking………………..see webpage here.
- Anchor logo with an “H” superimposed over it (shown)……..Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation, Lancaster, Ohio and other plant locations (1937-to date). More info here.
- Anchor within a rectangle (shown)………Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation, Lancaster, Ohio & other locations. (1937-to date). This mark used since about 1968. See Anchor Hocking Corporation page.
- Anchor logo (pictured: stylized angular “AG” letters, forming an anchor)……………..Anchor Glass Container Corporation, Tampa, Florida [head office], plants at Salem, NJ; Connellsville, PA; Winchester, IN; Shakopee, MN; Henryetta, OK; Jacksonville, FL; Elmira, NY; Warner-Robins, GA and Lawrenceburg, IN (1983-2012). (Anchor Glass Container Corporation was “spun off” from Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation in 1983). AGCC has produced vast quantities of bottles and jars…………..liquor bottles, food containers, etc. Note: Anchor Glass Container Corporation (as of August 2012) was purchased by Ardagh Group, based in Luxembourg, Europe. Most of the former Anchor Glass plants (listed above) are still operating (as of 2013) under the Ardagh Group banner. http://www.ardaghgroup.com/ . For more info on Anchor Hocking Glass marks, click here.
- Angel above crown logo……….Kerr Glass Manufacturing Company, Portland, Oregon and other locations. Logo used on base of jelly jars and other glass items.
- A & P ……………Uncertain. Reported on the base of a sauce bottle (a Worcestershire Sauce “lookalike” brand) dating circa 1880s. In this case the mark is probably that of the food product maker or distributor, and not that of the glass maker.
- Arbogast & Co. Pitts. PA…………………Arbogast & Company (Alexander Arbogast), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c. 1860-c.1863). See “A. Arbogast” entry. Obscure manufacturer that specialized in blackglass bottles. More detailed information on this operation (and many others) can be found in Glasshouses and Glass Manufacturers in the Pittsburgh Region 1795-1910 (2009) by Jay W. Hawkins.
- Arcoroc…………………………Brand name used by Arc International, France, for their commercial-grade glassware. See ARCOROC glass page.
- Atlas (on fruit jar)……….Atlas Glass Company, Washington, Pennsylvania (1896-1902), and the Hazel-Atlas Glass Company, Wheeling, West Virginia and other plant locations. (1902-1964)
- Atlas / H-A / Mason…………………..Hazel-Atlas Glass Company.
- Atterbury/Atterbury’s Patent June 30, 1863…………….(on fruit jars) Atterbury & Company (J.S. & T. B. Atterbury).
- Avon…………………………Please see my webpage on AVON BOTTLES here. A brief discussion of Avon bottles including the glass figural bottles (such as the cars, etc) is presented there.
- A W inside an oval…………………………..American-Wheaton Glass Corporation, Terre Haute, Indiana (mark used approx. 1959-1962). Shortlived merger/reorganization. Later became American Can Company, Glass products division (1962-1967), and then Midland Glass Company in 1968. Midland was based in Cliffwood, New Jersey but also operated plants at Shakopee, MN as well as the Terre Haute facility.
- A. & W. ………………probably Agnews & Wilcox, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1869).
- B (on certain handblown bottles, c.1910 or earlier)…………Uncertain. In some cases, perhaps Buck Glass Company. See next several entries. The letter “B”, in some cases, might be just a mold identifier letter, with no indication of the glassmaker.
- B (with 2 serifs)…………….sometimes Brockway Glass Company, Brockway, Pennsylvania (1907-1988). See “B in a circle“.
- B (with 2 serifs)……often the Chas. Boldt Glass Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, at least on their early liquor bottles and other ware made in the circa 1900-1919 period. NOTE : Manufacturer attributions of bottles with a “B” on the base are confusing and (in my opinion) not completely certain. More information on the Chas. Boldt marks can be found here .
- B (without serifs)………….in some cases, perhaps Buck Glass Company, Baltimore, Maryland (c.1909-1961). Buck Glass was sold to Knox Glass, Inc. in 1961.
- B in cursive script (shown)………Ball Glass Container Corporation, subsidiary of Ball Corporation. This mark used on some containers 1994-1995. See Ball Bros Glass Company.
- B in a circle………Brockway Machine Bottle Company (1907-1933) became Brockway Glass Company (1933-1988), Brockway, Pennsylvania. See B in a circle page.
- B within a diamond (on the base of bottles) …………………. Binghamton Glass Company, Binghamton, New York (1880-1957). This company produced handmade bottles from it’s beginning up to approximately 1930, thereafter continuing to sell glassware as a wholesale distributor (glass made by other concerns), including a line of “Diamond I” prescription ware made by Illinois Glass Company of Alton, IL. The last mention of this company was in the 1957 Binghamton city directory. The great majority of bottles produced by Binghamton do not carry a glassmakers’ ID mark. Many of the Kilmer Swamp Root bottles were made by Binghamton. Known bottles with the “B in a diamond” mark on the bottom include square Horseradish bottles (would be generally termed “square pickle bottles” by the average collector) that are pictured in local Binghamton Glass Co. newspaper ads from the early 1900s and were evidently made in considerable numbers for several years, and a rectangular medicine-type bottle which was found with a paper label for Harris Extract Company of Binghamton, circa 1906, and can safely be attributed to this glassworks. Much more detailed information can be found in a new reference work by Maurice R. Hitt, entitled A History of the Binghamton Glass Company (published in 2011) . Thanks Maurice for this information! (Please see next entry).
- B within a diamond (on upscale colored ornamental and novelty glassware such as small “hen on nest” salt dishes, not utilitarian bottles)………………… Boyd’s Crystal Art Glass, Inc, Cambridge, Ohio (1978-to date).
- Ball……………………Ball Brothers Manufacturing Company/Ball Brothers Company (Ball Corporation after 1969), Muncie, Indiana and other locations (1888-1998) . Please see Ball Bros Glass Manufacturing Company page for a brief summary of this company.
- Ball Bro’s Glass Mf’G Co. Buffalo…………Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company, Buffalo, NY (marking seen on glass fruit jar lids made c. 1885-1888). See Ball webpage for summary of this company.
- Ball Perfect Mason……see this page with a brief summary of this popular jar, as well as Ball Bros Glass Manufacturing Company page.
- Baltimore Glass Works………………..Baltimore Glass Works, Baltimore, Maryland (c.1800-1905, which includes a succession of firms). Various flasks and bottles are marked with the full factory name, and the majority of these probably date between 1830 and 1870. Also, see B.B. & Co.
- B.& A.C.CO…………Baker & Adamson Chemical Company (1881-1913). Producer of acids and other chemicals. Although not the mark of a glass factory, this may be mistaken for one. Seen on the base of chemical and acid jars and bottles, most of which probably date from the early period — 1881 to 1900. B&A was bought by General Chemical in 1900, and in 1913 General became a division of Allied Chemical & Dye Corporation, later Allied Chemical Corp. ACC merged into Allied-Signal and that company is now part of Honeywell, Inc.
- BANNER ……….. trademark used by Obear-Nestor Glass Company, East St. Louis, Illinois (1894-1978 for one of their lines of druggist bottles. Confirmed on the base of a clear rectangular pharmaceutical/prescription bottle. According to Arthur G. Peterson’s “400 Trademarks on Glass” this was used beginning in 1899. No word on ending date.
- “Belt Buckle” logo (oval shape with line through center) ……….Western Glass Manufacturing Company, Valverde (Denver), Colorado (c.1900-1909).
- B B……………..Berney-Bond Glass Company (1905-1930), see entry under “B B G CO”.
- BB48…………….Berney-Bond Glass Company (1905-1930), see entry under “B B G CO”. NOTE: Milk bottles bearing the mark “BB48” were also made by Owens-Illinois Glass Company for many years after Berney-Bond was no longer in existence. In cases such as this, the Owens-Illinois mark (diamond superimposed with O and I) will also be seen on the base. Most of the bottles carrying both of these marks were made at the former Berney-Bond glass plant at Clarion, PA, which became O-I plant number 17. I am not sure how late the BB48 mark was retained on Owens-Illinois milk bottles made at this plant, but have seen a bottle with a 1947 date code.
- B B CO……………Berney-Bond Glass Company (1905-1930), see entry below. Another possibility: the mark on some bottles might stand for the Bellaire Bottle Company, Bellaire, Ohio (c.1885-1921+); or the Bell Bottle Company, Fairmount, Indiana (1910-1914)
- B. B. & Co. …………Baker Bros. & Company (proprietors of the Baltimore Glass Works), Baltimore, Maryland (1852-1905). Mark seen on the base of Baltimore-area aqua blob beer bottles from the c. 1880-1895 period. (Thanks to Greg Franklin for supplying info on this mark!)
- B B G CO………….Berney-Bond Glass Company (1905-1930). A merger of the Bond Glass and Berney Glass companies, plants were located in Bradford, Hazel Hurst, Smethport, Clarion, and Knox, all in the state of Pennsylvania; the Winslow Glass Co. plant at Columbus, Ohio was purchased in 1927. Berney-Bond was bought by Owens-Illinois in 1930. Most of these plants were closed down in later years, until by the early 1970s only the Clarion plant (Owens-Illinois plant #17) was still making bottles.
- BBGMCO (monogram on jars)……..Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company, Buffalo, New York (used on fruit jars c.1886-1888 before move to Muncie, IN.) See “Ball”.
- B-C …………Bartlett-Collins Glass Company, Sapulpa, Oklahoma (1914-1929); Bartlett-Collins Company (1929-2008). B-C mark (the letters enclosed in conjoined circles) was used on tumblers after 1921, but I do not know how long after that the mark was used. Manufacturer of a wide line of tableware over the years, Barlett-Collins was later a subsidiary of the Lancaster Colony Corporation (owner of Indiana Glass Company after 1957). Bartlett-Collins produced items such as jars, mugs, canisters and votive candleholders under the brand name “Indiana Glass”. The Bartlett-Collins plant was eventually purchased by Anchor Hocking Company, and shortly thereafter closed down (as of June 2008). Items made there during the Lancaster Colony Corporation years, in general, do not carry an embossed maker’s mark. A sister plant operated by Lancaster, located at Dunkirk, Indiana (the original “Indiana Glass Company” factory) ceased production of glass in 2002. See “Indiana Glass” and “LCC” marks. For much more detailed info on Bartlett-Collins and the history of the Premium Glass Company and other organizations involved in the earlier history of the plant, see this article written by Bill Lockhart et al: http://www.sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/BartlettCollins.pdf
- BF……………….Ball-Foster Corporation (mark used 1995-2000). In 2000 became Saint-Gobain Containers, with the SG mark being instituted. See Ball Bros Glass Company.
- B & Co [o is underlined], below a triangle…………….. Unknown. Triangle has number “500” embossed within, on the example reported, but perhaps a different number appears on other containers? Hand-blown, odd lip jar, off-clear glass w/perhaps faint grey-amethyst tint. Perhaps European origin? (Reported by Sam Lawson).
- B.F.G.CO………….Beaver Flint Glass Company, Toronto, Ontario , Canada (c.1897-1948). NOTE: This marking is also found on glass telegraph insulators made by the Beaver Falls Glass Company, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania (1869-1879). The mark was also very likely used on bottles, as this same set of initials are seen on certain soda/mineral water bottles of the period.
- B.G.CO……………this mark was used by a number of different companies, and there is still uncertainty on absolute attribution in many cases. On earlier blob-top “export style” beer bottles and soda bottles, usually Belleville Glass Company, Belleville, Illinois (1882-1886). The Belleville factory was purchased by Adolphus Busch Glass Manufacturing Co. in 1886, and presumably the B G CO mark was discontinued soon after, being replaced by A.B.G.CO. or A.B.G.M.CO. The “B.G.CO.” mark was also used by Burlington Glass Works, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (1875-1909) on the face of their “Burlington” fruit jars. A Moxie soda bottle variant with a crown lip carries the B.G.CO. mark, and in that case would have been made by an unidentified factory some time after 1892 (the year the “crown” style lip was introduced). “B.G.CO.” is also reported on the heel of a light green crown lip Anheuser-Busch Brewing Association beer bottle that appears to date from the 1910s or 1920s. The maker is uncertain. On some milk bottles, B. G. CO. was apparently used by Buck Glass Company, Baltimore, Maryland. (Buck normally used just a “B”). If you have information that could shed light on the BGCO marks, please contact me.
- BI (or “I B”, a stylized logo/monogram consisting of “B” with lower-case dotted letter “I” incorporated within the letter “B”)………Ball-InCon Glass Packaging Corporation (mark used 1987-1994). Ball-Incon was formed as a merger of the glass plants owned by Ball Corporation, combined with the Indianhead Container Corp which consisted of glass plants at Laurens, SC; Port Allegany, PA; Madera, CA and other locations. See Ball Bros Glass Company.
- Bird-like logo or emblem (shown, right)……………….unknown. Seen on base of clear glass oil or vinegar cruet / pitcher, possibly of European or Asian manufacture? If anyone recognizes this logo, can you please advise us on it’s identification. Thank you!
- BiXby……………..S.M.Bixby & Company, New York, New York. (1862-19?). For a brief summary of this company, click here.
- Blenko Handcraft (usually seen on paper or foil labels) ………………………….. Blenko Glass Company (began 1893, later, at Milton, West Virginia since 1921). Maker of beautiful hand-made blown glass in a wide range of bright colors; the most popular item ever produced would be their widely-recognized “Water Bottle” with a very characteristic shape. This bottle has been made in many, many colors since 1938. A wide variety of handmade items are produced, some of them from handcarved wooden molds as well as iron molds. Very few Blenko glass articles were marked (in the glass itself), but here is a page with more info. http://blenkoarchive.org/blenko_signatures_labels.htm . The official Blenko Glass Company website is here: http://www.blenko.com
- B. L. Fahnstock Fortune & Co. Pitts. Pa. ……………..Fahnstock, Fortune & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1866-1873). Mark seen on the base of wax sealer and “Kline stopper” type fruit jars. This company was evidently sold to Evans, Sell & Company in 1873. See “F. A. & Co” and “E. S. & CO.” marks.
- Blue Ribbon………..Standard Glass Company, Marion, Indiana (c. 1907-1933). Trademark is found base-embossed on their line of clear (“flint”) rectangular pharmaceutical/prescription bottles. This trademark was first used in 1908, according to information published in Arthur G. Peterson’s 400 Trademarks on Glass(1968). Standard Glass Company was bought by Foster-Forbes Glass Company in 1933.
- B.& M.S.Co……….Bottler’s & Manufacturer’s Supply Company, Long Island City, NY (c.1897-1920). Seen on heel of New York City-area blob beer bottles.
- B O C……………..Unknown (Seen on base of yellow amber quart blob beer bottle, c. 1885, shown here in pic). Although it has been proposed by some researchers that this mark is merely a mold-cutting error for “D.O.C.” (see that entry), I am doubtful and believe that this does stand for an obscure, short-lived glass company (or some type of bottling or brewing firm?) with those corresponding initials. The embossed lettering is very strong and bold on this bottle.
- BODE……………..Bode Extract Company, Chicago, Illinois (Gustav Augustus Bode, proprietor). Mark seen on the heel of a few hutch soda bottles. Bode evidently manufactured bottles from c. 1890 to 1892, but thereafter concentrated on the production of extracts. He passed away in 1900. Thanks to Joel Ferguson for sending me this info!
- Boyd’s Crystal Art Glass, Cambridge, Ohio . (B in a diamond mark on upscale glassware indicates that company.)
- Boyd’s Genuine Porcelain Lined Cap (or ‘Genuine Boyd Cap for Mason Jars’, other variations)………. marking seen on white milkglass inserts (discs or lids) used with zinc lids on “Mason” type fruit jars. Please see this page for more information.
- B. P. & B………Bakewell, Page & Bakewell, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1824-1836)
- B.P.CO……………Brunswick Pharmacal Company, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Seen on small cobalt medicinal bottles, dating perhaps from about 1895-1930. Bottles are also marked with a “back-to-back PP” inside a circle. Actual glass manufacturer is unknown, but Maryland Glass Corporation, Baltimore, MD (a prolific maker of cobalt blue bottles after 1907) could be one possibility. The “B.P.CO.” marking bears no relationship to the next entry.
- B.P.& Co………Beck, Phillips & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1866-1886+). Seen on the base of wax sealer fruit jars. Some similar jars are also found lettered “Beck, Phillips & Co. Pitts.Pa” in a circle on the base. McKearin (1941:611) indicates this company changed it’s name to “Phillips & Company” in 1874, and was still operating in 1886. The actual ending date was not given. So presumably the jars found with either of these marks would date between about 1866 and 1874.
- Brockway………….Brockway Glass Company, Brockway, Pennsylvania (1907-1988). See “B in a circle” page. Most bottles I have seen with the cursive “Brockway” marking, usually embossed on the base, appear to date from the 1950s-1970s period, although I don’t know the exact period of use of this mark.
- Brody (E.O.Brody)………………… E.O. Brody Company, Cleveland, Ohio (1958-to date). This is NOT a glass company, but a jobber/distributor of products made especially for the florist industry. See more info here.
- Bromo-Seltzer / Emerson Drug Co. / Baltimore, MD. (usually embossed across the face of the bottle)………………………. Bromo-Seltzer was an extremely popular drug, in the form of a powder, introduced circa 1891. For more information, please see the Bromo Seltzer page.
- Brookfield………….(On glass insulators), Brookfield Glass Company, with factories at Brooklyn, NY and Old Bridge, NJ. For more information, see Bushwick Glass Works (Brookfield Glass Company) page.
- Brookfield……………(On milk bottles). See this page on the Brookfield “Baby Face” milk bottles.
- Brooklyn Glass Bottle Works………………..Brooklyn Glass Bottle Works, Brooklyn, New York. Time period when this plant was in operation is uncertain. From the type and general style of bottle which carries the mark (early cylinder whiskey), it looks like the company was probably in operation during the 1860s or 1870s.
- B & S …………….unknown. Seen on base of pickle or “chow chow” bottle, possibly British. A possibility would be Thomas Barron & Sons, an obscure bottle maker operating circa early 1890s.
- Burgin & Sons…………………………Philadelphia Glass Works, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. See “Philada Glass Works”.
- Burnett’s Cocoaine…………………..This was actually a hair dressing made with Coconut Oil, promoted as a product guaranteed to give the hair a more luxurious, healthy appearance. Contrary to what some collectors might assume upon finding a bottle with this embossing, the product did not contain cocaine (unlike some of the products being sold in the mid and late 1800s that did indeed contain that ingredient). First sold in 1856 by Joseph Burnett of Southborough, Massachusetts, it was a popular product for many years and was still available into the early 20th century. Several variations of the bottles exist. The glassmaker is uncertain, but it is probable that one or more bottle companies located within or near the Boston area manufactured these bottles. For more information on the Burnett products and ephemera, and photos of many of the bottle variants that are known, see this page at http://www.southboroughhistory.org/History/Burnett%20Company/Medical/History_of_Burnett_%20Med_%20Prod.htm .
- Bushwick Glass Works………….Bushwick Glass Works, Brooklyn, New York (1864-c.1906). More commonly known under the name Brookfield Glass Company. Prolific maker of glass electrical insulators, they also made considerable quantities of bottles and jars, the great majority of which were not marked with the company name. See my webpage with more info here: Brookfield Glass Company .
- B superimposed over W (or W superimposed over B)……… Uncertain. See “W superimposed over B” entry on page 5 (S-Z marks).
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