Bromo-Seltzer~Cobalt Blue Bottles~Brief History

Bromo-Seltzer / Emerson Drug  Co. / Baltimore, MD.  

Bromo-Seltzer was an extremely popular drug, in the form of a powder, introduced circa 1891.  This concoction was heavily promoted as a remedy for “sick headache”, upset stomach,  headache, hangover, and other maladies. The exact formula varied somewhat in the earlier years, with the main ingredient (originally) being sodium bromide.  The bottles are usually found in cobalt blue glass (they are also rarely seen in aqua glass), in a variety of sizes. The earlier bottles are hand-blown with a tooled lip, and the later examples are machine-made. The last machine-made types have a screw-threaded lip.

WARNING: (this paragraph first posted February 23, 2014, updated July 19, 2015).   It has come to my attention that unscrupulous ebay auction sellers have recently listed old Bromo-Seltzer bottles in a peculiar dull greenish color…… I would give the color a term such as swampy moss green, olive green amber, pukey sick green, burnt olive green or dirty mustard green!  Some bottles are also showing up in peculiar shades of dark teal blue, “midnight blue”, “dark ink blue”, very dark teal green or “Prussian Green”, colors that the Bromo bottles were NEVER made in originally.  Although these bottles could theoretically show up virtually anywhere, some of them appear to be originating from sources in Florida.  ALL OF THESE BOTTLES WERE ACTUALLY ORDINARY COBALT BLUE BOTTLES WHICH HAVE UNDERGONE “NUKING” (irradiation)  to change their color to a “rare” color shade, increasing the “perceived” value to bottle collectors.  Be aware that the color is not “original” or “authentic”.  Also, please see my webpage on this site about Artificially purpled bottles.   Artificial irradiation can change glass from an original aqua or blue color to other shades including purple, depending on the exact content of the glass batch “recipe”.

(Note: Hand-blown (mouthblown) bottles will have two vertical mold seams along the sides of the bottle that gradually “fade out” or appear to be “erased” as the seam reaches closer to the top rim.  In contrast, machine-made bottles have mold seams that are usually visible clear up to the top of the bottle, often extending up onto the very top rim).

The product is still being sold, as an antacid, and comes in small individual packets as opposed to bottles.

The largest size bottles are somewhat scarcer, and harder to find than the typical small size (most common) which measures, in general, about 2 and 5/8″ in height.

Many, many millions of these bottles were made, and the embossed lettering varies somewhat with slight variations in the exact placement, size and shape of the letters.  Some bottles exhibit the results of mold-cutting errors, for instance sometimes the “Z” in “Seltzer” is embossed backwards (as in the case of the small bottle on the right in the accompanying photo). Incidentally, that particular bottle is an older version, with a “squared band” lip, believed to date from the early years of Bromo production, circa 1890s. In contrast, the great majority of the small Bromos have a “rounded band” lip.    Cobalt Blue Bromo-Seltzer bottles

It is likely that hundreds of different molds were utilized in the long stretch of time that these bottles were made. An examination of bottles shows many that carry only mold numbers on the base. These mold numbers (one or two-digit numbers) do not convey any precise information as to when the bottle was made.  (However, because of the high quantities of machine-made Bromo-Seltzer bottles seen with these mold numbers, it is very likely (but so far, not proven) that they are products of Maryland Glass Corporation).

The first bottles were believed to have been produced by Cumberland Glass Manufacturing Company, Bridgeton, New Jersey in the early 1890s.     Maryland Glass Corporation (starting production in 1907) was a glass manufacturer originally owned by Emerson Drug Company and built to be operated as a vehicle for producing the vast quantities of Bromo-Seltzer bottles necessary.  (As time went on, Maryland concentrated most heavily on the manufacture of many types of cobalt blue bottles and jars and other blue glassware).  Maryland Glass, no doubt, produced more of the B-S bottles than any other manufacturer.   The most common mark used by Maryland Glass Corporation is the “M inside a circle“. See more info on the mark on this page.

All of the earlier Bromo-Seltzer bottles were handmade, presumably including all of the Cumberland Glass production, and the first few years of Maryland Glass production.  It is not possible to pin down a specific year that Bromo-Seltzer bottles were first made by automatic bottle machine methods, but by 1915 Maryland Glass Corporation had automatic machinery in operation, and presumably most, if not all, of the Bromo-Seltzers made after that year were machine-made.

Illinois Glass Company, of Alton, Illinois, evidently made quantities of this bottle, some marked with a “dot inside a diamond”. Those examples would date from the late 1910s and 1920s.   (NOTE (added 7/19/2015): this statement is now open to debate……….author/researcher Bill Lockhart believes the “dot inside a diamond” mark, along with some other very similar “geometric” marks found on some Bromo-Seltzer bottles, is a mold identifier (serving the purpose of a mold number) but does NOT serve as a glass manufacturers’ mark.  If anyone has found a Bromo-Seltzer bottle with a definite  “diamond with an I inside” on the base,  please contact me, as I want to find out if Illinois Glass Company should be crossed off our list of makers of the Bromo bottles. (Contact me through the email address at the lower right hand corner of any page on this site.)

Some Bromo Seltzer bottles were also believed to have been produced by Hazel Atlas Glass Company (or it’s predecessor, Hazel Glass Company).  However, that information is now in doubt as well, as discussed on Bill Lockhart’s exhaustive webpage on Bromo-Seltzer bottles here.

Another confirmed maker of Bromo-Seltzer bottles would be George Jonas Glass Company, Minotola, New Jersey (1896-1908), as this is specifically mentioned on page 271, The Glass Gaffers of New Jersey, by Adeline Pepper (1971).

Exactly when the last glass Bromo-Seltzer bottles were made is uncertain, but probably in the 1950s or 1960s. (If you have evidence to assign a specific date for the last Bromo-Seltzers made in cobalt blue glass, please contact me!!).  UPDATE: Please see a letter sent to me by Ron, inserted farther down in this page. He states that the glass bottles might have been discontinued not too long after 1956.

Bromo-Seltzer bottles are so plentiful that they do not have a high intrinsic value, but because of their highly attractive cobalt blue color, they are very popular with glass and bottle collectors and non-collectors alike, and can even add color and interest to interior room design.  Many of them are sold on internet auction sites such as ebay, and other antique and collectible sites.

For a little more background information on Bromo-Seltzer, check .

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46 Responses to Bromo-Seltzer~Cobalt Blue Bottles~Brief History

  1. mike johnson says:

    Per Ron’s comments about when glass Bromo bottles were phased out…he is about twenty five years too early. Warner Lambert discontinued glass Bromo bottles circa 1981, not 1956 (the first commercial plastic bottles were produced in 1959 for Procter and Gamble’s Ivory Liquid). I have a complete Bromo package (bottle,box,etc.) which has the zip code for Warner Lambert (zip codes post date 1965) and no UPC code (post dates 1975). So, it is my contention that glass bottles of Bromo-Seltzer were made well after the 1950’s.

    • David says:

      Hi Mike, and thanks for your comments. Can you post some info on your exact sources of information that indicate the Bromo-Seltzer bottles were made up until circa 1981? Did the last cobalt blue bottles containing Bromo-Seltzer actually have the brand name or company EMBOSSED on the glass? If not, once a label is gone it may be difficult to know that any particular bottle actually contained a certain product. Also, not to split hairs (and it doesn’t change anything in your assessment of dates) but zip codes were introduced in the US in July of 1963. Although they were not made “mandatory” on certain classes of packages until 1967.

  2. Joel Jackson says:

    Anyone have a Cobalt Blue 2 1/2inch tall with slick sides and P & W on the bottom. Also H-24 and a 7 in the center. Looks like a cork stopper must have been in it originally..

  3. william says:

    Have found a bottom of a cobalt blue glass with a circle and the number 6 over the circle. Do you have any idea what this bottom came off of.

  4. Chris DeLong says:

    Wow, thank YOU, David, for all the information you’ve provided and hosted here. It’s like I’m in a support group or something! :) Living in an historic 1870’s home, I too have a story of the bottle popping up out of the ground last year while planting a tree… which is the larger bottle pictured above, 5 on the base. I posted a pic of my bottle on FB and within minutes someones google search pointed me right here. I notice now, though, and wonder… I see a dot/period on the upper curvature, centered, back.

    Thanks again!

  5. Loraine says:

    Hi, I live in a historic home built in 1851 with a granary that was built in 1865. My son-in-law happened to see a piece of blue glass under the floor that sparkled. He dug it up and it was a Bromo Seltzer bottle. A fun find. It has the original cork stopper in the top. Do you know how to remove this without damaging it so I can wash the inside of the bottle? It was so fun to read all the comments. Loraine from Utah

    • David says:

      Hi Loraine, Sounds neat! Usually a very old cork will be dried out and easily prone to damage when attempts are made to remove from a bottle. Personally, I would leave it as is. (Since it is an authentic artifact from your house’s history, it might be of more interest or sentimental value if left as it was found). I don’t know this for a fact, but perhaps there are smaller sizes of corkscrews out there that could be used to remove the cork if you really want it gone? Sorry– I just don’t know.

  6. Coffeegirlct says:

    My parents house sits on an old ‘clean’ landfill and we constantly find cobalt bromo seltzer bottles in the ground. I think we’re up to about 20 now in various sizes.

    • David says:

      HI, and thanks for your comment! The Bromo-seltzers are out there in abundance, and many, many different molds with differences in exact markings can be found! Great “window bottles”!! David

  7. Noreen says:

    Thanks David. I just picked up a 2 boxes of bottles from an estate sale. It was in a MD family. Using your article i was able to identify it from the MD factory, hand blown, no marking on the bottom. The bottle is in amazing condition as it sat on a shelf in the basement of the old farm house.

  8. Jamie says:

    Thank you David for posting this information!! I live in Kansas and have found a multitude of htese bottles, of all sizes, buried in my backyard. Some of them still have the cork and powder inside. I will have to go home now and find out where they were made thanks to your information on the “M” or “I”. I have also found a few, no bigger than 2 inches that have no information on them at all. Most are cobalt blue in color. Thanks again for the information!!

    • David says:

      Hi Jamie, and thanks for your post. I would imagine there might have been an unofficial trash dumping area along the back perimeter of your property, and the area has settled over the years, and/or been covered over with soil, and you are now finding some of the “non-degradable” items such as bottles that were disposed of there?
      Take care, David

  9. Christina says:

    I have a blue bottle but it has a .4 on the bottom? What does that mean?

    • David says:

      It’s a mold number, and just identified the mold. It means almost nothing to us collectors now, but had importance to the factory workers at the time the bottle was made.


  10. Mark says:

    My Dad and I dug many of these bottles when he was around. They have a very special attachment for me. I’d like to make a collection of them again. Thank you very much for your article.

    Mark in Boston.

    • David says:

      Thanks alot Mark!! They are beautiful bottles…… that Cobalt color! Good collecting, and thanks for your comments!

    • Hello my name is Kathy, I recently came across two cobalt bromo seltzer bottles. One of them is the big bottle with the lettering on It and the other is a sm bottle with no lettering but however it still contains some of the bromo seltzer powder in it with original cork. Are these bottles worth anything

      • David says:

        Hi Kathy, Sorry, this is not really an appraisal site. However, most Bromo-Seltzer bottles in the more common small sizes are worth around 50 cents to a couple dollars apiece. They may be priced much higher on online auction sites, in antique stores, flea markets, etc. Larger, more unusual sizes will be worth more.

  11. cowseatmaize says:

    I’m glad you posted that Dave. I met a seller at a bottle show several years ago that had two Bromo’s for $10 each. I wish I bought them as examples. One was that fugly moss color and the other was more a teal green. I mentioned the “nuking he was upfront that they had both been irradiated.The tealish was probably “under cooked”. Some Teals have been dug though so that further clouds the issue.

  12. Betsy Stone says:

    The Bromo Seltzer Arts Tower is Open for Tours. Check out our website We have 15 floor s of artists and do tours into our historic clock

  13. D N says:

    Great info — I was able to validate my 6.5 ” bottle, hand blown version. Bubble over Emerson , seam disappears on the top. Would this date bottle to pre 1907 ?

    • David says:

      Unfortunately, there is no way to be sure just when any particular Bromo-Seltzer bottle was manufactured, only a very general date range. Methods of bottle manufacture changed over GRADUALLY (from hand-blown to machine-made), over a period of quite a few years, generally between 1904 and circa 1920. Some glass manufacturers changed over rather early, some later. Some made both handblown AND machine-made bottles concurrently for a period of time. Some factories produced hand-blown bottles even much later than 1920.

      According to Julian Toulouse in Bottle Makers and their Marks (1971), on page 339, he writes that Maryland Glass Corporation did not start fully automatic bottle production until 1915. Of course, this is 8 years after Maryland had been in business, churning out tremendous numbers of cobalt blue bottles and jars of many types including the Bromo-Seltzers which was their principal product. So, there is no way to state positively that your bottle dates either before, or after, 1907. It could be a product of Cumberland Glass Manufacturing Company, Bridgeton, New Jersey (maker of Bromo-Seltzer bottles before Maryland started production of them c. 1907) but there is no way to be absolutely certain. Cumberland is believed to have been the first maker of these bottles, and might have blown the first Bromo-Seltzer bottles (presumably as early as circa 1891-1892), but there is conflicting information on exactly when the first of these bottles were produced. It is possible that some of the very earliest bottles containing Bromo-Seltzer were unembossed. Best regards,

    • Betsy Stone says:

      We try to share as much history that we have on the Bromo Seltzer Arts Tower which was the home of the Emerson Drug Company was built by Isaac Emerson a mover and shaker in Baltimores history. Our history room is modest and we are always hoping to find people interested in donating to make it more interesting. We have a counter dispenser and we are looking for the large bottle that fits into it. I can be contacted through the website. Keep on collecting!

  14. Cathy Kelly says:

    Great information! I am a seaglasser and found a piece of a Bromo Seltzer bottle on the beach near Baltimore yesterday. I was able to identify the piece as from a 5″ bottle. There is a lot of great info here and I have shared this link on my facebook page – Sea Glass Visions. Thanks! Cathy

  15. keith says:

    Does anyone know if the embossed bottles also had paper labels? I have the earlier dispenser and have a nice large almost 8 inch bottle that is embossed Bromo-Seltzer Emerson Drug Co. Baltimore MD. Wondering if it had a paper label also. I can’t find any examples online that have the paper label and have the embossing as well. Say when you went to the drugstore in 1925 what did the actual product look like?

    • David says:

      Hello Keith,
      I’ve always assumed that all of these bottles originally carried paper labels. I can’t vouch for that 100 percent. However, perhaps a close watch on ebay auctions will bring up an example, sooner or later, showing the label on this size Bromo-Seltzer bottle from that time period.
      Best regards,

      • Ray says:

        Hi guy’s
        If I am not mistaken – the embosssed side of the bottles was often the back side of thje bottle and the front did in fact have a printed paper

        • David says:

          Hi Ray,
          I think that you are right about this—- at least concerning alot of typical kinds of bottles, not just Bromo-Seltzer. I might add that in earlier times (say, as early as the mid-1800s), most bottles of any type or product usually had a paper label glued or taped on it, and that was in *additional to* whatever embossing may have been on the bottle (although there has always been a high percentage of un-embossed bottles). However by the 1920s more and more bottles went to “label only”… eliminating the extra cost of having embossed lettering. Just my guess, but the high point (the “heyday”) of lots and lots of raised embossing on bottles seems to be the period of around 1870-1910.

  16. Catherine Moskovis, Salem, MA says:

    Recently, the house next door was torn down, and the workers gave me some old bottles. We have several, but I noticed the bottle I have on this page. It is cobalt blue, about 2 1/2 inches tall, and has “Bromoseltzer Emerson, Drug. Co. , Baltimore. Is it fair to say the bottle itself is circa 1891? It is in flawless condition, but tiny. Have never seen one before, and was just inquistitive. Thanks so much for any info you may have to share with me.

    • David says:

      Hi Catherine,
      Your bottle could theoretically date from the early 1890s up into the early 20th century. These bottles were made over a period of MANY years. The chances are high that any particular example is NOT from 1891.
      Can you email me a photo of the bottle? (to (The style of lip changed somewhat over the years). Earlier versions were hand-blown (with the vertical mold seams “fading out” before reaching the top) and later versions are machine-made. Typically, the mold seams on a machine-made example will extend all the way up to the very top of the bottle. Hope this helps~

  17. bren says:

    I have a bromo-seltzer bottle less than an inch tall with the cap and the bottom markings are a triangle inside a triangle can you give me any information on that?

    • David says:

      Sorry, I have no specific info on it. The cobalt blue jars I have seen with 2 triangles on the base are Vicks-Vaporub jars, but I don’t know about any bottles marked Bromo-Seltzer with that marking on the bottom.

  18. Connie says:

    I have a 4 inch Alka-Seltzer glass bottle what year were they last made?

  19. Ron says:

    In 1956, Emerson’s Bromo Seltzer was sold to Warner Lambert. I don’t know the exact date this
    transpired. I have two bottles from this year. Both are 4 inch with the screw top. One paper label
    reads “The Emerson Drug Co.” while the other reads “Warner Lambert Company”. It was the Warner Lambert Co. that switched the cobalt glass bottle to blue PLASTIC bottles.I believe they made that transformation with one or two years keeping the cobalt blue glass bottle in the 1950’s.

  20. Joyce says:

    Thank you for your helpful article. Just got one of the 4″ ones at the local flea market. It is a later one, with visible seams the whole length. Can you tell me the significance of the number 3 stamped on the bottom?

    • David says:

      Hello Joyce,
      It really has no significance to the modern-day bottle collector. It is just a mold number, which merely identified the specific mold that bottle was made from. At the time your bottle was made, there may have been a number of identical molds being used to produce that particular size of bottle, with all under production simultaneously, thousands of bottles being churn out by Maryland every day. Each mold was engraved with a number (for instance, from 1 to 12), or even extending to higher numbers. For more info, check out my page on numbers on the base of glass bottles here..
      Thanks for writing!

  21. Christine Ward says:

    I have your article very interesting as I have just found a bottle under our patio Our cottage was built in 1878 and was originally used for the workman. I will clean up and use as a pretty small vase. many thanks

    Christine Ward