Glass Bottle Marks – 4



Note to readers: for introductory and explanatory comments and discussion concerning this GLASS MANUFACTURERS MARKS section of the website, please click on the “A-B” link below which points to “Page One” of these five alphabetically-arranged  pages.  Thank you very much!!


            [ A – B ]          [ C – D ]         [ E – L ]         [ M – R ]         [ S – Z ]

      • M………………….in the majority of cases, Maryland Glass Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland (1907-c.1970s).   Exact period of use is uncertain, but verified on the base of cobalt “Milk of Magnesia” bottle from circa 1950.  Most Maryland bottles, if they carry a mark, have the “circled M” on the base.  (Please see next entry). If a bottle with a “plain M” is some type of medicine bottle and was made in cobalt blue colored glass, it is probably a product of Maryland Glass.    Also, a similar mark is seen on the base of certain mouth-blown amber, aqua and clear beer bottles (and an amber salve jar) that appear to date c. 1880-1905, and the glassmaker in those cases predates Maryland Glass and to my knowledge remains unidentified.  (For instance, some beer bottles marked “F. & P. BOCHART, NEW ALBANY, IND” are marked with a plain “M” on the bottom, and those would date sometime between 1890 and 1907, judging from the years that bottler was in business).  The unknown (unidentified) glass manufacturer was probably located somewhere in the Midwest, i.e.  IL, IN, OH or PA.  There were a number of bottle factories just in those states with a name beginning with “M”, which shows why it is so hard to know for certain who the maker of those bottles was.    NOTE:  In some cases a “plain M” may be the mark of the Mosser Glass Company (1971-to date) but in those cases, keep in mind that Mosser produces upscale decorative and novelty glassware, not utilitarian containers.    See “M inside a circle” and “M within a G” entries.

        "M in a circle" mark used by Maryland Glass Corporation. Here, as embossed on the base of a small cobalt blue Bromo-Seltzer bottle.

        “M in a circle” mark used by Maryland Glass Corporation. Here, as embossed on the base of a small cobalt blue Bromo-Seltzer bottle.

      • M inside a circle (on the bottom of glass containers, especially medicine bottles of many types and sizes, often in cobalt blue glass) – see more information about this mark on this webpage……….. Maryland Glass Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland (1907-c.1970s).

        Mosser Glass Company - "M inside a circle" mark on the base of ruby red toothpick holder/votive candleholder.

        Mosser Glass Company – “M inside a circle” mark on the base of ruby red toothpick holder/votive candleholder.

      • M inside a circle (on tableware, novelty glass, salt dips, glass shoes, children’s mugs, decorative toothpick holders and many other types of reproduction colored glassware, typically not on utilitarian/commercial  containers)………………………….. Mosser Glass Company, Cambridge, Ohio (1971-to date). NOTE: the “M” may or may not have slightly angled vertical strokes so that the letter appears to be an upside-down “W.  Also please see “M” and “M within outline of the state of Ohio” entries, as well as the “M inside a circle” entry concerning Maryland Glass Corporation.
      • M within a G…………Maryland Glass Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland (1907-c. 1970s).  This mark is confirmed to exist on the base of a cobalt blue rectangular “2 oz” marked bottle, with vertical ribbing on the front; probably an iodine or poison bottle.  Also seen on the base of  a cobalt “Perfection Ginger Ale, Brooklandwood Springs  Company, Baltimore, MD” bottle. (Thanks to Ken Previtali for the information on the ginger ale bottle!)  The “G” is very similar in appearance to a horizontally oriented oval.  Because of it’s presence on the Brooklandwood Springs bottle, I consider this to be virtual proof that this particular mark was indeed used by Maryland, although only in rare instances as compared to their “M inside a circle” mark which was normally used.
      • M inside a diamond, seen on druggist bottles and glass eye wash cups……………. John M. Maris Company, wholesalers/jobbers of druggist ware, sundries, pharmacy “furniture”— this firm began in 1842 as Pleasants & Maris, name changed in 1846, business offices in Philadelphia and New York City.  Still in business (2015) with offices currently based in Rockaway, New Jersey. John M. Maris Co. sold drugs wholesale until 1872 when they changed the focus somewhat and started selling a large line of glass druggist bottles and related ware (Pharmaceutical Era, Vol. 39, pge. 166, 1908). Apparently most (if not all) of the glass sold by Maris was/is actually manufactured by unnamed glass bottle companies, in early years almost certainly Whitall Tatum & Company of Millville, New Jersey who specialized in druggist ware of all types. The “M in a diamond” mark is confirmed on several different glass items including a clear druggist bottle circa 1885; clear and cobalt blue eyewash cups; and a miniature clear glass mouth-blown lamp with a ground lip and metal screw-top wick assembly which was seen on ebay and said to have possibly been used for medical/laboratory purposes. Apothecary weights (tokens) are known with the “M inside a Diamond” logo. Also, confirmed as marked on the bottom of a milkglass cold cream jar, circa 1920s-1940s (but this item may or many not have any connection with Maris?). Also, please see next entry. (Thanks Nona H. for the eyecup, and thanks to George Sturrock for his help in researching this mark!)
      • M inside a diamond (on Mason-type zinc caps for fruit jars, and their corresponding milk glass “discs” or inserts)……….Marion Fruit Jar & Bottle Company, Marion, Indiana – with plants also located at Fairmount, IN; Converse, IN and Coffeyville, KS. (1888-1904). “The Marion Jar”, a fruit jar made circa 1890s to 1904,  originally came with these lids.  The “M” has slightly out-curved “legs” which make the mark appear as the letter “W” when viewed upside down.
      • M in a hexagon………Metro Glass Bottle Company, Jersey City, New Jersey. Mark used c.1949-c.1981. Also with plants at Washington, PA (since 1957); Carteret, NJ (1958) and Dolton, IL. Known as the Metro Glass Division of National Dairy Products Corp. after 1956 (Kraftco after 1969). Later known as MetroPak Containers. MetroPak was bought by Ball Corporation in 1980. The Jersey City plant was closed on Nov. 13, 1981, but the other three plants continued in operation. I’m unsure of the exact chain of later events on this company. If you know, email me!
      • M in a keystone……..Metro Glass Bottle Company, Jersey City, New Jersey (Mark used c.1935-1949). See above entry.
      • M in a shield……….Monarch Glass Company, Compton, California (c.1920s). Seen on base of Puritas water bottle.
      • M within outline of the state of Ohio…………… Mosser Glass Company, Cambridge, Ohio (1971-to date). Seen on colored tableware and upscale novelty glassware. See also “M” and “M in a circle”.

        Midland Glass Company mark

        Midland Glass Company mark

      • M (abstract representation), shown, consisting of one stroke, a narrow rectangle, positioned against 3 other narrow rectangles (at right angles). This logo may be intended as an abstract M, but also appears something like a capital “E” with a space between the vertical stroke and the three horizontal strokes. …………. Midland Glass Company, Inc., Cliffwood, New Jersey; Terre Haute, Indiana, and Shakopee, Minnesota (1968-1984?) This mark is frequently seen on “stubby” non-returnable beer bottles of the 1970s.
      • MACE / U.S.A. ……………………. Unknown. This appears, along with a “Crescent Moon” logo which is an unidentified mark, on the base of a clear pharmacy bottle lettered “Eugene Gosselin / 148 No. Champlain St. / Burlington / VT”. Info on this bottle was reported by Barry Conolly.

        M A Co in diamond (on base of clear glass shaving mug)

        M A Co within diamond (on base of clear glass shaving mug)

      • M  A  Co. (inside diamond), as seen on the base of a clear glass shaving mug, possibly circa 1900 – 1930…………….. This mark is unidentified/ unknown.
      • MAINE, with number and/or letters & the word “SEAL”,  on milk bottles) ………………………………… a number of glass manufacturers made milk bottles with this type of marking, required by state law, for bottles used within the state of Maine.  See list at this milk bottle site:
      • Mansfield Glass Works……….Mansfield Glass Works, Lockport, New York (1872-c.1909). See Lockport Glass Works entry.
      • MARVEL……………………Unknown. Reported on base of clear glass pharmaceutical/drugstore bottle. Probably a brand name used by a particular glass manufacturer for their line of prescription bottles (such as “LYRIC” by Illinois Glass).
      • MASON’S PATENT NOV 30TH 1858 ………………… Click here for a general summary of this marking, seen on fruit jars.
      • MASS (with number and/or letters & the word “SEAL”,  on milk bottles) ………………………………… a large number of glass manufacturers made milk bottles with this type of marking, required by state law, for bottles used/distributed within the state of Massachusetts.  See list at this milk bottle site:
      • MASS GLASS CO. …………….Massachusetts Glass Company, Somerville, Massachusetts (c.1867-1871?) . This manufacturer is believed to have produced unmarked glass insulators, apparently none of which have been yet positively identified (See my page on  Insulator Manufacturers). This rare mark, which is assumed to be linked to that same company, has been reported observed on the base of a very, very small number of bottles.
      • M. B. & G.CO………Massillon Bottle & Glass Company, Massillon, Ohio (1900-1904)
      • M.B.W………………Millville Bottle Works, Millville, New Jersey (1903-1926). Bought by T. C. Wheaton Company in 1926. MBW made chemical, druggist and laboratory bottles, glass tubing, funnels, etc.  Exactly when the “M B W” was discontinued in actual practice is unclear, as bottle molds in use at the time of the buyout in 1926 might have continued to carry that mark for just a little while after 1926, before eventually being retooled.   See T.C.W.& CO.
      • McC………………..William McCully and Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1841-c.1909)

        McC&S mark on base of 12-sided umbrella ink bottle. (Photo courtesy Jack Klotz).

        McC&S mark on base of 12-sided umbrella ink bottle. (Photo courtesy Jack Klotz).

      • McC & CO……………William McCully and Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1841-c.1909)
      • McC & S……………………..Unidentified with certainty.  These initials appear on the base of an American-made aqua 12-sided “umbrella ink” bottle which appears to date from the late 1860s into the early 1870s.  The base is a “key mold” type without a pontil mark. This is the only known report of this particular mark that I am aware of.  To my knowledge there is only one brief instance of the firm name “Wm McCully & Son”,  evidently from the 1850-1852 timeline as seems to be implied on page 187 of “Allegheny County’s Hundred Years” (1888) by George Henry Thurston.  However,  the bottle on which this mark appears seems to post-date the early 1850s, so at this time I can’t say for sure if this would be the correct attribution?!   If anyone else has seen this mark on any bottles, please contact me!
      • M.C.G.CO……………..Unknown. This mark appears on the base of several clear, handmade druggist/prescription bottles. Possibly from an unidentified glass company in one of the Eastern states, perhaps New Jersey?

        M C G Y (faint IA between G and C). Unknown British maker. (Photo courtesy of Natasha Moletta)

        M C G Y (faint IA between C and G). Unknown British maker. (Photo courtesy of Natasha Moletta)

      • M C G Y (with faint letters I A)………………Unknown. This mark appears on the base of a very dark colored ale or beer bottle from Great Britain, probably circa 1860s-1890s. Similar to the dark olive green “black glass”  ale bottles marked “C.W. & CO”. The order of the letters is assumed to be as stated, but it is possible the first letter may not be the “M”.  Also, it is not absolutely clear if the letters “C” and “G” are correctly identified, as they appear very similar, so the actual abbreviation could be “M G G Y” or “M G C Y”.  If anyone in the UK knows the identity of this early glass company, please advise!
      • McK in a circle…….. McKee & Company, Jeannette, Pennsylvania (1888-1951). Seen on various items such as black glass salt shakers and other opaque glass tableware, this mark was perhaps used mostly in the 1930s and ’40s. McKee became a subsidiary of Thatcher Glass Manufacturing Company in 1951, and eventually the factory was purchased by Jeannette Glass Company in 1961. For some more information on McKee, click here.
      • McKee & Co…………..see McKee Glass Company page.
      • McK. G. Co. …………. McKee Glass Company, Jeannette, Pennsylvania.  Seen on the base of syrup dispenser, circa 1951. See  McKee Glass Company  page.
      • McL………………..McLaughlin Glass Company, Vernon, California (1920-1935).   Especially well known by glass collectors for their electrical insulators, McLaughlin also produced a wide variety of bottles and other glassware.  Most McLaughlin products are found in the Western states of the US.  For more information click here .  [Note: Some water bottles (and probably other types of bottles) marked with “McL” on the base also date from the 1940s and 1950s when William McLaughlin operated other, smaller factories in Vernon and Gardena, California.]
      • M C W …………….Mallinckrodt Chemical Works, St. Louis, Missouri (1867-to date). I believe most, if not all, of the bottles found with this mark are hand-blown and date from approximately the 1880-1920 period. The actual glass factory where these bottles were made is unknown, but Illinois Glass Company, Alton, IL, would be a likely source.
      • Mechanic Glass Works, Philada……………..Mechanic Glass Works, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Exact dates of operation currently uncertain, but a very scarce flask which bears this inscription appears to date from sometime in the 1845-1865 period.
      • M. F. J. and B. CO………Marion Fruit Jar & Bottle Company, Marion, Indiana (1888-1904) Fairmount & Converse, Indiana (1894-1904). Plants bought out by Ball Bros. in 1904.

        Madera Glass Company

        MG – Madera Glass Company

      • MG, M/G, M over a G (as shown)…………..Madera Glass Company, Madera, California (1971-1990s?). Found on wine bottles. This glass plant is still operating (2019) and is now part of Ardagh Group. It was formerly owned by Saint-Gobain Containers, later Verallia.  If someone knows what year the MG mark was discontinued and when the later marks were phased in at this factory, please contact me!
      • MG………………..Maywood Glass Company, Compton, California (1930-1959). Maywood was purchased by Anchor Hocking Glass Corporation in 1959. There are at least 2 or 3 slightly different variations of the MG mark used by Maywood.  In two of the variations, as illustrated by Toulouse in “Bottle Makers and their Marks” (1971), the letters are touching. One of the “MG connected” variants is shown at right and MAY date from the 1950s period. Probably most of the containers made by Maywood were sold/distributed in California and throughout the Western states of the US, and are more commonly found in those areas.
      • M.G.CO……………..See this webpage on MGCO mark.
      • M.G.M.CO (monogram)…..prob. Minneapolis Glass Mnfg. Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota (c.1886).
      • M. G. W. …………..Massillon Glass Works, Massillon, Ohio (1881-1904). This mark has long been a mystery, with very little concrete evidence available pointing to any specific glassmaker. For a long time, I had posted Middletown Glass Works of Middletown, New York (1887-1891) as a possible user of the mark. However, recently it has come to my attention that the Massillon Glass Works, a factory which was later more commonly known under the firm name (operating company name) of Reed & Company,(see “R & Co” mark)  is virtually certain to be the true source of bottles which carry this mark. Virtually all MGW bottles which also carry brewery or soda bottling firm embossings on the face of the bottle are from cities located in Ohio (plus a bare handful from southern Michigan). This is very strong evidence for a glass manufacturer from that general area.  In-depth study by archaeologist/author/researcher Bill Lockhart, and, in addition, information submitted by Rob Riese, a Massillon-area bottle collector (concerning MGW-marked beer bottles found barely a few hundred feet away from the original site of the Massillon Glass Works), virtually clinch this identification once and for all. Most of the M G W bottles are export beers, of the same general type and appearance of the R&CO beers made by Reed & Company. It is very possible that the MGW mark was used for the first few years of operation, and later the R&CO mark was phased in. Furthermore, it is possible both marks were used simultaneously for some period of time.  Thanks to Bill Lockhart and Rob Riese for this update!
      • Michigan Mason (on fruit jars)……………….. Michigan Glass Company, Saginaw, Michigan (1911-1916).
      • MILLVILLE BOTTLE WORKS 1888 …………. lettering on reproduction (fantasy) bottle manufactured by T.C. Wheaton Company circa 1970s. (Please see discussion in “Comments” section below, starting with query posted by Robin on 8/1/2017.)
      • MINN (in a triangle, along with a 1 or 2-digit number, on milk bottles) ………………………………… a number of glass manufacturers made milk bottles with this type of marking (required, for a time, by state law for bottles to be used within the state of Minnesota). Seen on the heel or the shoulder. See list at this milk bottle site: .
      • M. J. CO. …………….Unknown (Seen on base of wax sealer fruit jar).
      • M’Kee………………S. McKee and Company,  Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Click here  for more info.
      • Mo.G.Co…………….Missouri Glass Company, St. Louis, Missouri (c.1859-1911). Seen on face of rare wax sealer fruit jar, probably dating from the 1860s or ’70s. See M.G.CO.

        Photo from "Madman", member of

        Photo from “Madman”, member of

      • Moon & Star logo, on base of clear druggist bottles (shown)……….. Unknown manufacturer, probably located somewhere in the Northeast U.S.
      • Moon logo (without star)…….see “Crescent Moon” entry.
      • Mountain Mason………..Intermountain Glass Company, Midvale, Utah (c.1930s). Brand name found embossed on fruit jars. See “IGCO (monogram) in brackets” entry.
      • M/T (Monogram)………See T/M mark.
      • M T C inside a triangle…………………Thatcher Manufacturing Company.

        "M T C" mark on heel of milk bottle. (Photo courtesy of ebay seller Cawhite1946)

        “M T C” mark on heel of milk bottle. (Photo courtesy of ebay seller Cawhite1946)

      • M T C………………Thatcher Manufacturing Company, Kane, PA; Wharton, New Jersey; other plant locations in later years (c.1904-1985). This variation is seen in the form of a large T with smaller “m” and “c” sheltered underneath the “roof” of the T, in rather plain “block” style lettering (as shown in photo). Please see Thatcher Glass page here.
      • Mt.L.  (see pic shown on right)  ……………Unidentified/Unknown.  Mark seen on base of amber machine-made beer bottle with no markings on sides, but with unusual “hobbleskirt” type profile, appears to be from the 1910-1930 period. This mark may stand for either a glass company OR a brewer or bottling company, perhaps meaning “Mount L______” ?

        MT.L. mark on base of amber beer or soda bottle. (Photo courtesy of Seth Miller)

        MT.L. mark on base of amber beer or soda bottle. (Photo courtesy of Seth Miller)

      • Mutual Glass Co, Pitts……………Mutual Glass Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (c.1869-c.1888). Name embossed on base of a wax sealer fruit jar. This rather obscure concern made tableware as well as oil lamps, chimneys, chandeliers, fruit jars, bottles and flasks. Also known as Gallinger and Company. Date information courtesy of Jay W. Hawkins’ Glasshouses and Glass Manufacturers of the Pittsburgh Region 1795-1910 (2009) with more detailed info in that reference book.
      • M above a V (entwined) within a circle…………Vidriera Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico (1909-19??). I am not sure of the dates of use for this mark, which appears on some glass insulators (such as CD 106) found in Mexico.  Another mark which is virtually identical in appearance is found on several types of glass insulators made in France. (See next entry).  Also, see the “V” mark, and the “V over M inside a triangle” marks.

        VM (MV) logo on CD 642 "Gingerbread Man" style insulator made by Verreries de Masnieres

        MV (VM) logo on CD 642 “Gingerbread Man” style insulator made by Verreries de Masnieres

      • M above a V (entwined) within a circle…………..Verreries de Masnieres (Masnieres Glassworks), Masnieres, France.  This mark is seen on the skirt of French-made glass electrical insulators, such as the CD 642 style “Gingerbread Man”, typically seen in shades of dark olive and emerald green glass. There is apparently no connection between this factory and the Mexican glass factory (see above) which also made insulators, although both marks are practically the same in appearance.  The Masnieres glassworks dates back to 1818 with various name/firm changes over the years. The range of dates this mark was used is uncertain, but might be from the 1920s-1950s? If you have better info on the years this was used, please contact me!
      • 17N (or other number between 16 and 29)……………usually American Bottle Company, at their glass plant located in Newark, Ohio. On some bottles the letter may precede the number. Evidence indicates the date codes (16, for instance, is believed to indicate 1916) may have been used much earlier, as well as later —- perhaps from ABCO’s beginning in 1905, all the way up to 1929, at least on a few bottles. I have received a report that some bottles carried apparent date codes as late as 1933, several years after the former A.B.CO. plants had become part of Owens-Illinois Glass Company. See “16S”, “AB”, and “A.B.CO” entries.
      • N………………………………….Obear-Nestor Glass Company, East St. Louis, Illinois (1894-1978). Although this “N” is normally seen inside a square (see entry farther down), some bottles are seen with just a plain ‘N’, such as an amber “Winstead’s Lax-Fos” bottle. The bottle in question is machine-made, and dates from the 1910s, 1920s or 1930s. See “N in a square” page.
      • N in a circle or oval……….Obear-Nestor Glass Company, East St. Louis, Illinois (1894-1978). Mark is believed to have been used during the early years, on handblown ware, up to about 1915. See “N in a square” page.
      • N in a circle with a line underneath the N……..Northwood Glass Company, Wheeling, West Virginia (1902-1923). Mark seen on carnival and other decorative glassware. Rarely or never seen on bottles, but I’m listing the mark here for comparison with similar marks seen on bottles.

        "N inside a vertical diamond", used by National Glass Works. (As seen on base of kitchen canister or spice jar; Photo courtesy of Liz Clarke).

        “N inside a vertical diamond”, used by National Glass Works. (As seen on base of kitchen canister or spice jar; Photo courtesy of Liz Clarke).

      • N in a diamond……………National Glass Works (York), Limited, Fishergate, York, Yorkshire, United Kingdom (c.1930-1967). Known as York Flint Glass Company, founded circa 1837.  Incorporated as National Glass Works in 1930. National merged with Redfearn Glass Works in 1967. York factory closed c. 1984??   Exact stretch of years of usage of the N-Diamond mark is unclear, but it was surely in use at least during the 1950s and 1960s. Additional info on dates of usage of the mark is sought from readers!
      • N in a keystone………….Newborn Glass Company, Royersford, Pennsylvania (1920-1925)
      • N in an oblong (or vertical rectangle) …………Obear-Nestor Glass Company, East St. Louis, Illinois (1894-1978). This mark was presumably used concurrently with “N in a circle” and “N in an oval”, on handblown ware up to about 1915. After 1915, on machine-made ware, the “N in a square” was instituted as their standard mark. See “N in a square” page.
      • N in a shield………… Nelson Glass Company, Muncie, Indiana (1892-1896).  In “400 Trademarks on Glass” by Peterson (1968) on page 47, he lists this mark as used circa 1893 on fruit jars (apparently referring to an illustration in a trade journal advertisement). I know of no instance where this mark has actually been seen or documented, but perhaps time will tell.

        N inside a square mark, used by Obear-Nestor Glass Company

        N inside a square, used by Obear-Nestor Glass Company, East St. Louis, Illinois

      • N in a square or “box” (shown)…………..Obear-Nestor Glass Company, East St. Louis, Illinois (1894-1978). Obear-Nestor made huge quantities of bottles of many types for several decades, much of it in amber-colored glass. They produced some of the amber Orange Crush soda bottles. For more info, see “N in a square” page.
      • N under roof Vetri Speciali S.p.AN over a somewhat “flattened” V, inside a circle, shown (upside down, this mark resembles an N under a “roof”) ………Previously unidentified, Lou Bisiecki has kindly informed me by email that this mark is used by Vetri Speciali S.p.A., Italy, at their Pergine Valsugana glass container plant.
      • N next to (or within) a star………see Newark Star Glass Works, Newark, Ohio (1873-1904). 
      • N.B.B.G.CO………….North Baltimore Bottle Glass Company, North Baltimore, Ohio (1888-1895), Albany, Indiana (1895-1900); and finally the factory operation was moved to Terre Haute, Indiana (1900-1926). Producer of a very large number of soda, mineral water and beer bottles made for many companies, especially throughout the midwest. The initials are usually found on the heel of their bottles, often with rather small, lightly embossed, inconspicuous lettering. The majority of bottles found with the NBBGCO mark date after their move to Indiana.

        N B & CO amber bottle base shard

        N B & CO amber bottle base shard (photo courtesy Jon McCormack)

      • N B & CO. ………………..Nelson Baker & Company, Detroit, Michigan (1890-1950).  Nelson Baker was a pharmaceutical / drug manufacturing company.  N B & CO combined with Penslar Corporation in 1950.  Mark (as shown)  appears on base shard of a square amber medicine bottle, possibly circa 1900-1920, photo submitted by Jon McCormack.  Thanks Jon!
      • NC within a slightly flattened triangle (oriented with bottom side slightly longer)………….Noelle & von Campe Glashütte (Glassworks), Boffzen, Lower Saxony, Germany (Deutschland)………… (1866-to date). I saw this mark on the base of an 8-ounce clear packer jar (containing instant coffee) in October, 2012, and a packer jar (containing raspberry fruit spread from Poland) in March of 2019, both imported to the United States.  I don’t know when this mark was introduced or if it has been in use for a long time. The letters inside the triangle may appear somewhat indistinct or “muddy” and might be misinterpreted as MC, MG, NG, etc.
      • N & CO………….Nuttall & Company, St. Helens, Lancashire, England, United Kingdom. Nutall made many types of bottles that were imported into the United States. This mark dates before 1913, when Nuttall merged with several other plants to form United Glass.
      • N.C.L.CO……………Nail City Lantern Company, Wheeling, West Virginia (1877-1897). This firm was re-organized as Wheeling Stamping Company in 1897.
      • Neutraglas………….Kimble Glass Company, Vineland, New Jersey (1905-to date). Relatively recent trademark used on their borosilicate glass for scientific, pharmaceutical & industrial applications. Now known as Kimble/Kontes.
      • New Albany Glass Works (in circle on base)………….New Albany Glass Works, New Albany, Indiana (1867- c.1872). For more information see this webpage on New Albany Glass Works. 
      • Newburgh Glass Co……………Newburgh Glass Company, Newburgh (New Windsor), New York (c.1867- c.1872). Also known as the “New Windsor Glass Works” in at least one source (The Telegrapher, trade newspaper, 1867). Embossing confirmed on the base of a very scarce ale bottle. Newburgh also manufactured telegraph insulators, including at least some, if not many, of the insulators marketed by L.G. Tillotson in the late 1860s.
      • New Eng. Glass Bottle Co. ………….New England Glass Bottle Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1827-1845) . Embossing is arranged in a circular formation along the outer base rim of a “blackglass” (very dark olive green or olive amber) ale, porter or wine bottle. (This firm is not to be confused with the New England Glass Company, also of Cambridge). This mark was suggested to be, by author & glass historian/researcher Helen McKearin, the probable earliest glassworks identification mark known on the base of an American-made bottle, possibly dating from the 1830s. However, no one really knows what year the mark was first used. I believe that another mark (but from the Pittsburgh region) might actually be a contender for “1st place”! See “W. I. & P” entry.
      • New Granite Glass Works, Stoddard, N.H………………..New Granite Glass Works, Stoddard, New Hampshire (1861-1871). Seen on flask with flag design. For more info on Stoddard Glass, see
      • New London Glass Works…………New London Glass Works, New London, Connecticut (1856-c.1859). Factory name seen embossed on historical flasks. This reportedly became known as “Union Glass Works” about 1859, and was probably the same factory known as “Thames Glass Works” in the 1865-1866 period.

        Nadir Figueiredo S.A. mark on glass tumbler

        Nadir Figueiredo S.A. mark on bottom of green glass tumbler

      • NF. (N joined with upside-down L and raised dot or small “o”, see picture of mark as shown)…………………… Nadir Figueiredo S.A. , Suzano, São Paulo, Brazil, South America.  Producer of glass tableware,  especially tumblers. Illustration is showing the mark as seen on the base of an avocado green glass tumbler. Their website is
      • N G CO……………….Northern Glass Company, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1894-1896). This mark is very uncommon, but has been confirmed to exist by author/researcher Roger Peters.
      • N G W………………Northern Glass Works, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1896-1900). Continuation of above factory. Mark is uncommon, but does exist. W.F.& S. mark (William Franzen & Son) might have been the actual mark used on much of the product from this factory during the 1896-1900 period.
      • Nuart (Nu-art)……………Imperial Glass Company, Bellaire, Ohio (1902-1984). For more info, please see the Imperial Glass Company collectors’ website:”
      • NUCUT (Nu-cut)…………….Imperial Glass Company, Bellaire, OH. Mark used circa 1911-1932, on a small percentage of their pressed glassware. (Note: all glass with the “Nucut” mark, and certain similar marks used by other companies including “Near Cut” or “Pres Cut” are not actually cut glass, they are properly termed “pressed glass”. Pressed glass tableware was made by forcing molten glass under pressure, by either hand or machine methods, into an iron or steel mold). See link above for Imperial Glass collectors’ site.
      • Numbers (numerals) on the bottom of bottles…….please click here for more information.
      • NW…………………..Northwestern Glass Company, Seattle, Washington (1931-19??). The letters in this mark may or may not be connected.       Central New York Bottle Company
      • NY inside a C…………………..Central New York Bottle Company, Auburn, NY (1978-1994). Made Miller brand beer bottles. From information submitted by John Kuzma, this factory was sold by Miller to Owens-Illinois Inc. in 1994, to become their plant #35, which is still in operation as of 2016.
      • N.Y.Q.& C.W.Ld…………New York Quinine & Chemical Works, Limited, Brooklyn, NY. A subsidiary of McKesson & Robbins, a drug manufacturing firm first organized in 1833. I do not know the exact year that NYQ&CW was formed, but bottles bearing these initials on the base are mouth-blown and appear to date from the 1890-1920 period. The glass factory(s) which produced the bottles are unknown.

        O inside a diamond- On "H.E. Bills Magic Relief, Bay CIty, MI" bottle (photo courtesy Taylor McBurney)

        O inside a diamond- On “H.E. Bills Magic Relief, Bay City, MI” bottle (photo courtesy Taylor McBurney)

      • O inside a diamond (shown). Unknown maker. This appears on a handmade older American bottle marked “H. E. Bills Magic Relief”, possibly circa 1890-1920.

        Qinhuangdao Fang Yuan Glass Company

        Qinhuangdao Fangyuan Glass Company

      • O inside a diamond (rhombus)……………..shown here, as seen on base of emerald green mineral water bottle, made circa 2013………………Qinhuangdao Fangyuan Glass Company,Limited, Duzhang, Funing County, Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China [Mainland] (2001-to date).  This mark might be confused with a somewhat similar logo once used by Owens-Illinois, Inc. primarily in the 1930s-1950s. However, on this modern Chinese mark, the “O” (circle) is entirely inside the diamond, not entwined or superimposed as was Owens-Illinois’ mark.  Qinhuangdao Fang Yuan Glass Company’s official trademark/logo also includes two Chinese characters (Fang Yuan) placed within the circle, but these may not appear on actual bottles. The rhombus shape may appear somewhat “flattened” horizontally (as in pic) or with all sides with 90 degree angles (i.e. an ordinary square balanced on one point).
      • O in a keystone……………….Oil City Glass Bottle Company, Oil City, Pennsylvania (c.1930-1952).  Also, see the “Oil Derrick logo” entry farther down on this page, which was the mark used by their successor company, the Oil City Glass Company (1952-1969).
      • O in a square……….Owens Bottle Company, Toledo Ohio (1911-1929), also Fairmont, WV; Clarksburg, WV, Charleston, WV and other plant locations. See the Owens Bottle Company page.

        "I inside of an O" trademark/logo - Owens-Illinois Glass Company

        “I inside of an O” trademark/logo – Owens-Illinois Glass Company

      • O inside a triangle………………….Unknown meaning. This mark reported  on the base of a soda bottle from Providence, Rhode Island, dating circa 1895-1901.

        O inside a triangle (Photo courtesy of Taylor McBurney)

        O inside a triangle (Photo courtesy of Taylor McBurney)

      • O with an I inside…………Owens-Illinois Glass Company  (now Owens-Illinois, Inc.), Toledo, Ohio and other plant locations. See the link above for webpage with more information on this and other O-I marks.  This “I inside an oval or O” mark was phased in beginning in the year 1954, although it was several years before ALL of their bottle molds in use carried the “new”mark, which was basically the same as the “old” mark, but with the diamond removed. (See next entry).
      • O and I entwined with a diamond…….. see the Owens-Illinois Glass Company page for a number of photographs showing this very commonly encountered mark.
      • O.B.CO……………..Ohio Bottle Company, Newark Ohio (1904-1905). Short-lived merger of 3 factories. Later merged with several other plants to form the American Bottle Company.
      • Obear-Nestor………………please see “N in a square“.
      • O D ……………….Old Dominion Glass Company, Alexandria, Virginia (1901-1925)

        Olean Glass Company

        Olean Glass Company

      • OG in a circle, entwined (monogram, shown)………….Olean Glass Company, Olean, New York (1929-1942). Mark may be somewhat indistinct, with the “G” looking more like a “C” or a sideways “U”. Also reported as being found both with and without the circle.  This mark (photograph, shown) appears on the bottom of a food jar (design patented Aug. 5, 1919, patent number 53694, assigned to McNeill & Libby of Chicago).
      • OG (along lower heel of soda bottles, preceded and followed by various numbers)………Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana, Okmulgee, Oklahoma glass plant. See Graham.
      • OGCo (monogram)……….Olean Glass Company/Works, Olean, New York (1887-1915). There were two different companies known as Olean Glass. At least on the wax sealer fruit jars which are attributed to the earlier company, this mark appears as a monogram with the letters (left to right) arranged as “G O Co”, with the “O” much larger and partially entertwined with the letter on each side.
      • O G CO……………..Olean Glass Company, Olean, New York (1929-1942). This is the second Olean Glass Company. I have no info on whether this mark has been seen in actual use, or exactly how this mark appears, if it is different than the one from the earlier company. For a confirmed Olean mark, see “OG” monogram mark.
      • O.G.W. ……………..Olean Glass Company/Works, Olean, New York (1887-1915). See above entries. NOTE: Some bottles found with this marking are products of the Oakland Glass Works, Oakland, California (early 1880s). That factory operated for only a short time and bottles with this marking are scarce. They are nearly always found in California or the western U.S.

        OI mark without dash on heel of beer bottle (photo courtesy of Dannie Richard).

        OI mark without dash, on heel of beer bottle (photo courtesy of Dannie Richard).

      • OI …………. Owens-Illinois, Inc. (now generally known as “O-I”). This mark (without a dash between the letters) confirmed on the heel of an amber beer bottle apparently bearing a date code “96” for the year 1996.  I’m not sure when this exact variant of the mark was first used, or if it was considered of any consequence or particular meaning to omit the dash on some bottles, but on the great majority of containers the letters “O” and “I” are separated by a dash. If anyone has information on this mark and the next, and when they were first officially used on bottle molds, please let us know!  Please see next entry.
      • O-I ……………….Owens-Illinois Glass Company (Owens-Illinois, Inc. since 1965;  1929-to date). See webpage with more information on Owens-Illinois  here).  Not sure on the year this particular mark was introduced on bottles.

        Oil City Glass Company - Oil Derrick logo

        Oil City Glass Company – Oil Derrick logo

      • Oil Derrick logo (shown)……………Oil City Glass Company, Oil City, Pennsylvania (1952-1969).  This mark, a representation of an oil derrick or “oil drilling rig”,  is seen on the bottom of a variety of bottles, and is sometimes interpreted as an electrical tower or some other type of “grid” structure.  Also, please see “O in a keystone” mark.
      • OLEAN………………Olean Glass Company/Works, Olean, New York (1887-1915)
      • O-N………………..Obear-Nester Glass Company, East St. Louis, Illinois (1894-1978). Exact time period when this mark was used is uncertain, but a machine-made soda bottle from around 1920 carries it on the heel.  Please see “N in a a square“page,  also, “N in an oblong”, and “N in a circle” marks.
      • OP (along lower heel of soda bottles, preceded and followed by various numbers) …….. Graham Glass Company, Evansville, Indiana, this code used at their Okmulgee, Oklahoma glass plant. See Graham.
      • OS (same as above). See Graham.
      • OV (O and V intertwined, seen on the bottom of Italian containers such as certain brands of olive oil)…………Vetrerie Venete S.p.A., Ormelle, Treviso, Veneto, Italy.
      • Oval (horizontally arranged, with line drawn through longest axis, resembling a belt buckle)…………Western Glass Manufacturing Company, Valverde (Denver), Colorado (c.1900-1909)
      • OVGCO (monogram)…….Ohio Valley Glass Company, Bridgeport, Ohio (1881-1888). Seen on fruit jars. The embossing “O.V.G.CO.” which appears on glass electrical insulators is an unrelated mark which was used by the Ohio Valley Glass Company of Pleasant City, Ohio (1902-1905).
      • OWENS…………….. Owens Bottle Company, Toledo, Ohio (1919-1929) and it’s successor [after the merger with Illinois Glass Company], Owens-Illinois Glass Company (1929-to date). Mark is confirmed on a clear druggist bottle with date code “7.” (presumed to indicate 1947).  Sometimes just the “O” of “OWENS” is enclosed within a square. I don’t know when this mark was first used during the OBC years, so will have to go with “1919-1929” until further info is uncovered. I believe the mark was used up into the 1950s or ’60s by Owens-Illinois, but have no definite info on ending date.  See “O in a square”.
      • P (on the base of water tumblers, wine glasses and other household / bar drinkware, may appear backward so the letter is read correctly by looking down into the glass)…..Paşabahçe (Pasabahce), Turkey. (1935-to date).  This glassmaker has plants in Turkey as well as Romania and Russia.  No info on the earliest years of usage of the P mark.
      • P in a circle……….Pierce Glass Company, St. Mary’s, Pennsylvania (1905-1912); Hamburg, New York (1912-1917); Port Allegany, Pennsylvania (1917-c.1980s). This factory was acquired by Indianhead Container Corporation (later merged into Ball-InCon) and is now a Saint-Gobain Containers glass plant. This mark appears on some commonly-produced medicine bottles of the early to mid-20th century, including many of the Pitcher’s Castoria, Fletcher’s Castoria, Dr. W. B. Caldwell’s bottles and others which are found quite often in dumps of the period.

        "P in pennant" mark (photo courtesy of Lynor Lisi)

        “P in a pennant” mark (photo courtesy of Lynor Lisi)

      • P in a flag (P in a pennant)………….Pennsylvania Glass Products Company, Pittsburgh, PA……….. (Note added 12/8/2016):  There had been some speculation this mark might indicate the Pfizer pharmaceutical company, but that is incorrect. The “P in a flag” mark has now been positively identified as having been used by the Pennsylvania Glass Products Company of Pittsburgh. This information has come to me from Lynor Lisi, who sent photos showing lettering on a cardboard carton of unused “NOS” emerald green bottles bearing the “P in flag” mark on their bases. The carton appeared to have been manufactured (or packed) in June of 1971. The bottles were actually manufactured by Owens-Illinois at their Fairmont, West Virginia plant. Apparently Pennsylvania Glass Products Co. distributed vials, medicinal and laboratory bottles at the wholesale level, selling products actually made by O-I. There are listings on the web that indicate PGPC is still in business, but the exact timeline of business activity between 1932 and the present is rather murky, and the total period of use of this mark on bottles is unclear.  PGPC was evidently in business (to some capacity) as early as 1932, the president of the company (Tunis J. Dykema) receiving a patent for his invention of a combination bottle stopper/rubber dropper in that year. The original patent number is 1843812, the “Re-issue” number is #19520 which can be found on “Google Patents” as RE19520.  That patent number is usually, if not always, marked on the base of the bottles along with the P marking.
      • P in a keystone……..Wightman Bottle & Glass Co, Parker’s Landing, Pennsylvania [in Knox Bottle Company group] (1932-1951)
      • P in a square……….Pine Glass Company, Okmulgee, Oklahoma (1927-1929). Maker of “Pine Mason” jars. Factory purchased by Ball Bros Glass Company in 1929, later one of their most important plants.
      • Paris…………..brand name seen on bottom of  druggist bottles, assumed to be the name assigned to a line of such bottles made by an unidentified glassmaker.
      • PAT DES 187,302 (seen on the base of clear or amber bottles). This patent design number identifies bottles (which have an “hourglass” shape) that were used for both Windex Cleaner (in clear glass) and later for Crisco Oil bottles (in amber glass). The design was patented in 1960, but was used for many years.  A number of glass manufacturers made these bottles and most of them probably date from the 1960s and 1970s.  The bases might possibly be found  in trash dumps and among “beach glass”.
      • PAT. JULY 11, 1939 (on base of hobnail votive candleholders)…………………….Crescent Glass Company, Wellsburg, West Virginia (1908-19?, re-named Brooke Glass Company, dates of operation uncertain). Please see the Hobnail Glass Votive Candle Cups webpage.
      • PAT’D APR. 23 ’78 (on bottom of tableware, such as milkglass pitchers, covered bowls, etc in the Melon pattern). Please see webpage on Atterbury & Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

        Patent Dec 19 1871 on Hemingray Insulators

        On CD 132 telegraph line insulator made by Hemingray

      • PATENT  DEC 19, 1871……………… as seen on glass electrical insulators . This marking positively identifies the insulator as a product of the Hemingray Glass Company. Most insulators with this marking were made between 1871 and the early 1890s.
      • PATENT MAY 2, 1893………………..marking frequently seen on glass insulators. This patent date positively identifies the insulator as a product of the Hemingray Glass Company, Muncie, Indiana. The patent was referring to the invention of “drip points” (“teeth” or “beading”) added to the base of most Hemingray insulators.  Millions of insulators were marked with this patent date, primarily as a marketing ploy.
      • Pawn chess piece………see Capstan Glass Company.
      • P.B.W………………Point Bottle Works Company, Rochester, Pennsylvania and Beaver Falls, PA (at second location 1899-1906). Originally known as Rochester Flint Vial and Bottle Works (1879-c.1882), later, Rochester Point Bottle Works Limited (c.1882-1906). Appears on the base of clear coffin flasks. For more detailed information on this firm, as well as many other glass companies, many highly obscure, please refer to Glasshouses & Glass Manufacturers of the Pittsburgh Region 1795-1910 (2009) by author/researcher Jay W. Hawkins.
      • P/C in duo-segmented parallelogram……….Pacific Coast Glass Works (1902-1925) and Pacific Coast Glass Company, San Francisco, California (1925-1930). This mark was introduced in 1919, and used on ware until about 1930. Source on 1919 date: Peterson (1968:49).
      • P/C in a square……..Pacific Coast Glass Works (1902-1925) and Pacific Coast Glass Company, San Francisco, California (1925-1930). This mark was used possibly as early as 1919, but was definitely in use by 1925. See other “P.C.” entries.
      • P C in a triangle……….Pacific Coast Glass Works (1902-1925) and Pacific Coast Glass Company, San Francisco, CA (1925-1930). Mark was first used in either 1919 or 1925.
      • P.C………………..Pacific Coast Glass Works (1902-1925) and it’s successor Pacific Coast Glass Company, San Francisco, CA (1925-1930). The PC mark probably dates from either 1919, or 1925, and on up to 1930.
      • P.C.G.W…………….Pacific Coast Glass Works, San Francisco, CA (1902-1925). See “P.C.” marks.
      • P.D.& CO………..Parke Davis & Company, Detroit, Michigan (1875-to date). Parke Davis was (and is) known for an extensive line of pharmaceutical products. I’m including this mark because it’s frequently encountered and might be mistaken for a glass manufacturer’s mark. I do not know what glass company(s) made bottles for Parke Davis, but no doubt many different companies made bottles for them over the years. Most of the bottles with the P.D.& Co. marking probably date before 1930.

        PETTICOAT embossing on H.G.CO. CD 145 beehive insulator

        PETTICOAT embossing on H.G.CO. CD 145 beehive insulator

      • Petticoat (embossed word on glass electrical insulators) …………… a handful of glass manufacturers made insulators bearing this marking. The great majority of insulators so marked were made by Hemingray Glass Company. The term “petticoat insulator” in these instances, is merely referring to any of various styles of insulators with one (or more) “inner skirts”. That is, by looking upward into the base, an additional inner “ring” or “curved wall” of glass can be seen.  The most popular styles with this marking would be the “H.G.CO. // PETTICOAT” insulators made by Hemingray, especially the CD 145 and CD 162 styles.
      • P.G.Co. …………..Peerless Glass Company, Long Island City, New York (c. 1920-1932).  The mark “P.G.Co” is illustrated, in a circular orientation on the “northwest” corner (10:00 to 12:00 position) of bottle bases,  in a catalog page from an Owens-Illinois Glass Company bottle catalog / circular, undated but evidently from the early 1930s.   Also, see next entry.
      • P.G.CO……………..Uncertain (Seen on early clear handblown prescription flask, c. 1900). Might be a product of the Pennsylvania Glass Company, Anderson, Indiana (1888-1915). They were heavy producers of flint prescription ware. That company moved to Dunbar, West Virginia and operated there from 1915-1922.

        P G & Co on base shard of aqua bottle or jar (so far - unidentified)

        P G & Co on base shard of light aqua bottle or jar (so far – unidentified)

      • P G & Co………………Unknown. The shard illustrated at right appears to be the base of a fruit jar or bottle, circa 1885-1910?
      • P.G.W………………Pacific Glass Works, San Francisco, California (1862-1876)
      • Philada Glass Works/Burgin & Sons………………Philadelphia Glass Works, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1844-1910). Operated under more than one proprietorship, this factory started as Burgin & Pearsall in 1844, became Burgin and Sons in 1853. Most commonly encountered bottles with this marking are the squat sodas that appear to date from approximately the 1855-1875 period.
      • Pitcher’s Castoria………..for more information, please see page on Fletcher’s Castoria bottles.

        PL and trident inside shield (Photo courtesy Richard Shepard)

        PL and trident inside shield (Photo courtesy Richard Shepard)

      • P L (above trident / pitchfork, inside crest / shield)……………. User of this mark is unidentified.  The mark appears on the base of squarish machine-made glass jars of several sizes, most of which are marked either “PHYSICIANS’ SAMPLE” or “HOSPITAL DISPENSING UNIT” across the front. The jars have been seen in clear, amber, and light green glass (possibly other colors). The mark seems to stand for an unidentified pharmaceutical supply company, and the jars appear to date from the 1920s-1940s time period. If you have any information on the identity of this mark, please contact me.  Here, the pic shows the mark as seen on a colorless base shard. Update: I received a post telling me that this mark stands for Petrolagar Laboratories, and dates from 1941-1950s. Please see comment left by Mary Starr, from July of 2019, in the comments section of this page. If anyone has additional info on this, please let me know!
      • Plus sign (+)………………………….see “X” entry.
      • PORT……………….Port Glass Company, Muncie, Indiana (1890-1902); Belleville, Illinois (1902-1904). Plants bought by Ball Brothers Glass Manufacturing Company in 1904, closed in 1910.   Many fruit jars were made at this factory.
      • POSTAL (marking seen on glass electrical insulators)……….most of these were made by Brookfield Glass Company for the Postal Telegraph Company (1886-1945) and typically date from the 1900-1920 period.
      • Potter & Bodine………..Potter & Bodine, Bridgeton, New Jersey (1855-1863). This was one of the firm names under which the Bridgeton Glass Works operated. Later became known as the Cohansey Glass Works. “Potter & Bodine” mark is seen on fruit jars and on the base of cylinder whiskey bottles.
      • P & R / BRISTOL ……………Powell & Ricketts, Bristol, South West England, UK (c. 1856-1923). This particular mark may date from the 1850s into the 1880s or later. This company was just one incarnation in a series of glass firms based in Bristol, the earliest dating from the late 18th century. For more background info on these companies, see this article by Bill Lockhart et al :
      • Pres Cut (Pres-Cut)…………………Trademark / Brand name assigned to a line of upscale glassware patterns produced by McKee Glass Company, Jeannette, Pennsylvania. This marking appears on the base of many of these pieces, generally, most of it made during the period of c.1903-1920.   The patterns, known collectively as the “Tec” patterns, made use of elaborate “imitation cut glass” designs, similar in general appearance to the finely-crafted cut glass that was very popular during that time frame.  The 18 pattern names for this line include: Aztec, Bontec, Carltec, Doltec, Fentec, Glentec, Martec, Nortec, Plutec, Plytec, Quintec, Rotec, Sextec, Startec, Toltec, Valtec, Wiltec, and Yutec.  They are very ornate, and often confused with each other. Here is a webpage with illustrations of at least one piece in each pattern:  Also, please see next entry. Also see “Nucut”.
      • Prescut (note this is one word, not separated by a dash, as above entry) more accurately called “Early American Prescut”, this is an unrelated, later tableware glass pattern made by Anchor Hocking Glass Company, beginning in 1960, and still in production as late as 1999.   It is extremely common and many pieces are very inexpensive. They are usually not marked. A very similar pattern is called “Oatmeal”. Much of this ware was originally distributed as free giveaways as part of sales product promotions, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. For more information on this pattern, written by Cathy Linehan, see  Glass author/researcher Gene Florence discusses and pictures many of the pieces in this pattern in his reference book Collectible Glassware from the ’40s, ’50s and ’60s.  Note: this line is unrelated to the much earlier “PRES-CUT” line (two words) produced by McKee Glass Company, discussed in the above entry.
      • Putnam………………..Lyndeborough Glass Company, South Lyndeboro, New Hampshire (1866-1886), embossed on the base of “Trademark Lightning” fruit jars. HOWEVER, this mark was also used on large numbers of similar “Lightning-style closure” jars made  by a dozen or more other glass companies.  Please see my entry under “Trademark Lightning Putnam”.  The “PUTNAM” mark is also reported on early mouthblown amber beer bottles circa late 1800s or early 1900s. NOTE: There are also reproduction “Lightning” style jars with the marking “PUTNAM 227” on the base. These are relatively modern, made of amber glass, and were evidently made in Asia, likely dating from sometime in the 1960s-1980s period. (Assuming these were made from an old Lightning jar mold sold to a company in Asia, there exists the possibility that authentic Lightning jars with the number 227 do exist and may be found occasionally…….although a close inspection would likely show them to be old production by subtle clues of age such as general characteristics of the glass, the presence of high-point base wear, besides being made of the typical aqua “bottle glass” most lightning jars are found in).
      • Putnam Glass Works, Zanesville, O. ……………….Putnam [Flint] Glass Works, Zanesville, Ohio (c.1852-c.1871). Marking is arranged in a circle, and appears on the base of a wax sealer fruit jar. This factory went through many business name/owner changes and the exact period when these jars were made is uncertain.
      • P & W …………………….Powers & Weightman, Manufacturing Chemists, Philadelphia, PA (c.1847-c.1907), firm operated under several other business partnership names before and after those years. “P&W”, accompanied by mold numbers,  seen on the bottom of small cobalt blue medicine bottle, handmade, similar in appearance to Bromo Seltzer bottle, likely circa 1890-1915 era.
      • Pyrex……………………..Corning Glass Company/Works, Corning, New York (1875-to date).
      • Q ……………..Unknown. Reported on base of drugstore bottles, principally from northern Illinois area.
      • Quarrier, Ott & Co……………Quarrier, Ott & Company, Wheeling, (West) Virginia (1850-early 1860s?). One of the business firm names that operated the Union Glass Works of Wheeling. This marking has been confirmed on the base of a scarce cylinder whiskey bottle.

        Rosendahl, Copenhagen, Denmark

        R mark – Rosendahl, Copenhagen, Denmark (photo courtesy of Elizabeth Bruhmuller)

      • R (highly stylized, as shown) , this mark is seen on upscale tableware including tumblers………… Rosendahl, Copenhagen (København), Denmark (Danmark), 1984- to date.  This mark appears, when turned sideways, as somewhat similar to a capital “C” or “G”.  (Thanks to Elizabeth Bruhmuller for photo and attribution).

        Richards Packaging. Pic courtesy of Irena Shein.

        Richards Packaging (Pic courtesy of Irena Shein).

      • R (odd-looking trademark, sometimes may look like either an R or a K, with a bottle-shaped “notch” extending downward from the upper right side, shown)……………….. Richards Packaging, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada (originally operating under the name Richards Glass Co. Ltd, formed in 1912). Richards is a distributor of glass and plastic containers, and has a number of distributing locations scattered throughout Canada and the United States. Most of their glass containers with this mark were made in China, and to some extent, some other Asian countries. This particular mark is often (but not always) accompanied by a four-digit number, and dates after 2005. Earlier containers, with their earlier trademark, an “RP” (see RP mark) date after 1982, and were made in Taiwan. Their website can be found at . For even earlier marks, please see “R.G.Co.T” and “RIGO” entries on this page.
      • R in a circle……..Unknown.

        R inside a diamond (pic courtesy Veronica Cross)

        R inside a diamond (pic courtesy Veronica Cross)

      • R in a diamond……………Unidentified, but possibly stands for a glass company in Europe, maybe Italy? Seen on the base of emerald green wine bottle, possibly circa 1960s-1970s.  If anyone can identify the maker who used this mark on their bottles, please contact me!
      • R in a keystone……..Rosso Wholesale Glass Dealers, Inc., Port Vue, Pennsylvania (1969-to date). This mark is seen on glass “hen-on-nest” covered dishes and other decorative items. Rosso (strictly a wholesaler, not a manufacturer) has glassware made for him by various glass companies, including Mosser, Summit, Fenton and L. E. Smith.

        R inside a "sun" representation. (Photo courtesy of Penny Garcia)

        R inside a “sun” representation. (Photograph courtesy of Penny Garcia)

      • R within a “Sun” ………….Unknown (see photo). This mark is seen on the base of some bottles which, judging from the style, probably contained floor wax, furniture polish or some similar product. I am guessing they possibly date from sometime in the 1930s-1950s?  If you have info on the identity of this mark, please contact me!

        R in a triangle mark used by Reed. This bottle base has 1949 date code to right.

        R in a triangle mark used by Reed. This bottle base has 1949 date code to right.

      • R in a triangle……..Reed Glass Company, Rochester, New York (c.1927-1956). The 1927-1956 date range is given by Julian Toulouse in Bottle Makers and their Marks (1971).  However, I received a report from Taylor McBurney who confirms this mark on an older, square handmade bottle (prob. circa 1890-1915) so, assuming Reed was the maker of that bottle, they apparently used the “R in a triangle” much earlier than stated by Toulouse.  The “R in a triangle” might also indicate another, unrelated and unidentified company. See “Reed”, Rochester Glass Works, “C-H” mark..
      • R & CO (on the bottom of beer bottles)………………Reed & Company, Massillon, Ohio (1881-1904).   See this page for more info.
      • Rawleigh’s (W.T.Rawleigh’s / Freeport, Ill ) ……………… bottles with his marking are quite frequently found throughout the United States. Please see this page for more information.
      • Ravenna Glass Works…………Ravenna Glass Works, Ravenna, Ohio (1857-1866). Full name is found embossed on the face of fruit jars and whiskey flasks. Info on exact dates of operation courtesy of Brian Gray.
      • R B (on base of square, heavy handmade green-aqua pickle bottle, Great Britain)…………Unknown. One possibility could be Roberts & Brown, Castleford, Yorkshire, England, a glass bottle maker listed in a c.1852 list of bottle makers in England, but this pickle bottle might date much later.

        RC inside circle~Robert Coleman. On base of decorative iridescent 2-handled blown bottle. (Photo courtesy Carey Hamilton)

        RC inside circle~Robert Coleman. On base of decorative iridescent 2-handled blown bottle. (Photo courtesy Carey Hamilton)

      • RC inside a circle (shown)…………….Robert Coleman, independent glass artist who specializes in handblown iridescent (carnival glass) pieces, some with an “art deco” influence.   Vases, bottles, bowls, etc are found with this mark on the bottom. I’m not sure on years of production, but perhaps 1990s to present. If you have more info, please contact me!
      • Reed……………….F.E.Reed Glass Company (or Reed Glass Company), Rochester, New York (c.1899-1956). See Rochester Glass Works.
      • REIP (or R  E  I  P)………………as  seen on base of crown-top blue-aqua tooled lip “export beer” style bottle, probably made circa 1895-1915.  Unknown. (Reported by Lee Taylor).  Could be either initials, or an actual surname for a brewer or bottling company?
      • REX (in cursive script)…………Obear Nester Glass Company, East St.Louis, Illinois (1894-1978).  Mark used from 1896 to circa 1910?. Trademark used by Obear-Nestor, occasionally seen on base of clear prescription bottles. Please see “N in a square” page.
      • R.G.& B.CO……………Rhodes Glass & Bottle Company, Massillon, Ohio (1901-c.1919). This mark and the following variation is seen rather frequently on bases of amber and aqua beer bottles from cities in OH, PA, IN, MI, WI, and MD that I am aware of, and probably other states as well. An obscure company which is virtually unknown to bottle collectors, nevertheless quite a number of bottles were manufactured over a period of almost two decades. The name of the company seems to have changed slightly at some unknown time during it’s history, with the “&” being omitted. Perhaps future research will shed more light on this firm.
      • R.G.B.CO………Same as above. Presumably a variation of the above mark.
      • R.G.CO……………..Root Glass Company, Terre Haute, Indiana (1901-1932). Mark used by Root in the early years (1901-c.1909). Toulouse (Bottle Makers and their Marks, 1971)  stated these initials stood for Renton Glass Company, Renton, Washington (1907-1911). However, the “R.G.CO.” mark which was used by Renton likely appears only on certain bottles from the West Coast. I do not believe any of the many Midwestern-origin soda and beer bottles seen with the “R.G.CO.” marking originate from Renton.  See Root Glass Company page.
      • R.G.Co. T (around diamond)………..seen on base of druggist bottles made in Canada. Richards Glass Company, Ltd.  (later Richards Packaging), Toronto, Ontario, Canada. (1912- to date).  Richards was/is  a jobber/distributor and did not manufacture their own bottles, but had container ware made for them by Dominion Glass Company (D in a diamond) and later by other unidentified glassmakers. See  also RIGO, R (with bottle-shaped notch), and RP entries. For more detailed information on the Richards’ marks, see this thread at the site: Richards Glass Company discussion . (Thanks to Glen Phillips and Eric Kloff for their help and research!).
      • R.G.W. ……………..Possibly Ravenna Glass Works, Ravenna, Ohio (1857-1866). Seen on base of wax sealer fruit jars. (Dates courtesy of research by Brian Gray).
      • R.I.  (with number or letter and the word “SEAL”, on milk bottles) ……………………………………  several glass manufacturers made milk bottles with this type of marking, required by law for bottle used / distributed within the state of Rhode Island.  See list at this milk bottle site:
      • R.I.B……………..Unknown. (Rhode Island Bottling Company??) Seen on base of beer bottle, this mark could stand for either a brewing company, bottling company or a glass bottle manufacturer.

        "ROGO" mark on cobalt bottle (photo courtesy Eric Foster)

        “RIGO” mark on base of cobalt bottle (photo courtesy Eric Foster)

      • H. RICKETTS & CO GLASS WORKS, BRISTOL ……………………….H.Ricketts & Company Glass Works, Bristol, England.  This embossing is seen, arranged in a circle,  on the bottom of early blackglass ale and wine bottles. Bottles with this marking are believed to date from 1821 to about 1853.  This is probably the earliest type of bottle carrying an embossed glass factory identification mark on the base.
      • RIGO…………. Richards Glass Company Ltd., later Richards Packaging, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. (1912- to date) .  As seen on cobalt blue poison bottles. Bottles actually made by Dominion Glass Company. The “RIGO” mark apparently dates from 1912 to (at least) the 1970s. (Also, please see “R.G.Co. T” entry).
      • R.I.P……………Unknown.
      • RM (monogram)………..Unknown. Reported to me as seen on beer or soda bottle base shard.
      • Robinson, Geo. W. (Geo. W. Robinson / NO. 75 / MAIN ST W. VA.)……………………embossed marking on face of strapside flask. Made at the North Wheeling Glass Works (dba Geo. W. Robinson), Wheeling, West Virginia (c. 1860s- c.1910).  Exact time frame when these flasks were made is open to question, but they may date from sometime during the 1865-1875 period. Some sources (i.e. McKearin) indicate the works were in business as early as 1860. But in the earlier years window glass was the predominate product; later on they switched to making primarily bottles.  George W. Robinson was the owner/manager of the works sometime in the 1860s/1870s. An 1879 reference (History of the Pan-Handle, published by J. A. Caldwell) mentions “Mr. Robinson” was involved in early years, but indicates the works had just recently began operating with a new company (group of owners) under the name “North Wheeling Glass Company”, for a “short time”, meaning perhaps since 1877 or 1878(?).   The last mention I can find of this operation is from c. 1910 when young boys were striking at the factory.
      • Rochester Glass Wks………………………Rochester Glass Works, Rochester, New York (1862-1908). Alice Creswick in The Fruit Jar Works (1995:273) shows this chronology for the Rochester Glass Works and succeeding firms, evidently from city directory listings researched by either herself or Dick Roller: Rochester Glass Works (1862-1881); Kelley & Co. (1882-1885); Kelley, Reed & Co. (1886-1887); Eugene Reed & Co. (1888-1889); E. P. Reed & Co. (1890-1894); Rochester Glass Works (1895-1898); F. E. Reed Glass Company/Works (1899-1900); Rochester Glass Works (1901-1908); F. E. Reed & Co. (or F.E.Reed Glass Co.) (1909-1927); Reed Glass Co. (1927-1946); and Reed Glass Co., Inc. (1947-1956). Several marks were used at various times by this factory, and the exact period of time that each mark was used is not entirely certain.  Known marks include “Reed”,  “F.E.R.”,  “F.E.R.G.Co.”,  “R in a triangle”,  and “Rochester Glass Wks”. Some blob beer bottles are known with the marking “Rochester NY Glass Works” embossed in a circle on the base. The full factory name could conceivably have been embossed on bottles dating from anytime within the 1862-1908 time frame.    After a time of inactivity, the Reed Glass Company  plant at Rochester was purchased by Castle-Hanson Corporation in 1959, and the “C-H” mark was used for some period of time thereafter. Later, Leone Industries, based in Bridgeton, New Jersey, purchased the plant and their “L in an unconnected square” mark was used on ware produced at Rochester as well as Bridgeton. Exact dates of later operations of this factory are unclear. (See “R in a triangle”, “C-H”, and “L in an unconnected square” marks).
      • Rock hammer,  Scythe or Anchor-like symbol inside rounded vertical triangle (triangle vaguely reminiscent of teardrop shape),  as shown in photo……………….this glassmaker’s mark is seen on base of dark forest/emerald green Jägermeister liqueur bottle. Uncertain, possibly a glass manufacturer in Germany (Deutschland).  If you know what company used this logo, please contact me, and I will give you credit for the submission!

        Rock hammer mark

        Anchor or Rock Hammer mark seen on bottom of Jägermeister liquor bottle. Who used this mark?

      • Ron Ray 1991 (or other year, hand-etched on base of art glass bird paperweights) ……………… Phoenix Studios, Fayetteville, Arkansas. These birds, usually in blue glass, but occasionally in other colors, are similar to the pieces made by Terra Studios, also of Fayetteville. (All birds marked “Leo Ward” on the base are products of Terra Studios.)
      • ROOT……………….see this page: Root Glass Company, Terre Haute, Indiana (1901-1932).
      • RP (often with 3-digit number) on the base…………………..Richards Packaging, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.  This”RP” mark dates after 1982, and indicates production in Taiwan (by unidentified glass factory(s)  for Richards. Richards instituted their later odd-looking “R” mark in 2005 (as shown, above on this page).  Also see “R”, “RIGO” and “R.G.CO.T.” marks.

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78 Responses to Glass Bottle Marks – 4

  1. Seth Miller says:

    I have a ruby red crown top bottle with a hobbleskirt shape with no marking except on the base which is marked MT.L. (The T is smaller than the other letters). Any idea who made it?

  2. mary jo starr says:


    • David says:

      Hi Mary Jo,
      Thank you very much for your info. I did a search online and although I found many references to Petrolagar Laboratories, I couldn’t find a photo or mention tying the PL logo with that company. I am sure you are correct, as that pharmaceutical firm would certainly fit all the qualifications. Do you know of any references or photos online that would illustrate this connection? Did you actually work for Petrolagar, or know of someone who did?
      Thanks a lot for your input!

  3. vichyshioise says:

    I found an old Orange Crush bottle with the glassmaker logo saying “O. C. Co.” or “O. G. Co.” This bottle could either be a Olean Glass Co. bottle with the O G Co mark, or an entirely undiscovered glassmaker. Any help with identifying this?

  4. Libbie says:

    I have a 6 oz Old English bottle stamped with the R inside the sun logo. The A S Boyle Company Distributors.

    • David says:

      Libbie, thanks for your info. Unfortunately, I still don’t know what the “R inside a sun” actually stands for. But it definitely appears on many glass furniture polish bottles.
      Take care, David

  5. Charles Millis says:

    I have a carboy that is marked 1990 with what appears to be a VR attached together in a circle with number 3 and DOT-1M NRC M3008 all on the bottom. Not sure if it is a 5 or 6.5 gallon? Any information would be greatly appreciated. Thanks for such an awesome site for finding out so much information on glass.

    • David says:

      Charles, it seems I have seen a “VR” (letters connected) mark somewhere, but I can’t “place it” right now. I am sure it is a maker located outside the US, perhaps in Mexico or some other country in Central or South America, or possibly in Europe.


      • Donald Marn says:

        Up until 4 PM today I had a 5 gallon glass carboy with VR on the bottom. I still do not know the company name but it indicated made in Mexico. The V and the R share a common side right side of the V and the straight leg of the R. I bumbed it and a large piece came out of the rounded tob. Jug had been filled with quarters. I found a duplicate on Ebay and am negotiating to purchase it.

        • David says:

          Hi Donald,
          I believe the “VR Connected” mark was used by Vidriera Los Reyes, a glass container manufacturer in Mexico that was formed in 1944. I tried searching through some websites (my Spanish is not great), but using online translation services I THINK this may be one of several companies that combined to form Vitro Packaging. I’m guessing the mark VR was used sometime in the 1970s-1990s(?) If a reader has better, more in-depth information on this glass company from Mexico, please let us know! I will add a brief entry on my alphabetical marks list in the meanwhile!

    • Steve Gleason says:

      R in triangle info. Dave, I found in Elmira NY, a brown square wine bottle with embossed name “Urbana Wine Co Inc” Hammondsport NY in script. On the bottom there is the R in triangle and above – 151; below at 7 o’clock is embossed 1, at 5 o’clock position is embossed 7. Bottle has casting lines on 2 corner edges and a bottle top for cork. About 750 ml size. Urbana Wine Co. was in business from 1865 to 1988. Under Gold Seal ( Seagrams) label at end. UMass Amherst has some of the original records late 1800s. Looks like 1919 onward it was Gold Seal.

      Found your Rochester glass info helpful checking into this bottle.

  6. Charlie Blair says:

    Love your site. Unable to locate R C Wright & Co Buffalo. I have a milk bottle with this on the bottom from Pembroke Dairy RC Purvis, 95 Dewitt

  7. Sandy Maxwell says:

    Thank you VERY much for this website. I have used is so many times. I appreciate all the time and effort you put into this to help total strangers. Thank you for your kindness.

    • David says:

      Hi Sandy,
      Thanks so much for your kind words! I really appreciate that! I’m glad to know you’ve enjoyed checking out the website.
      Take care,

  8. Sherry Caven says:

    Purchased a little clear glass votive candle holder — not very impressive. Interesting part was the etching on the bottom of the glass. At first it looked like “1777” then my daughter pointed out that
    it was 3 candles, What looked like numbers were straight lines with flames etched above them.
    A curved line below seemed to indicate a plate the candles were sitting on. Also “TM” was
    below this. Any ideas who the manufacturer of this little ordinary piece could be?

    • David says:

      Sherry, I’m not familiar with the mark. Just guessing, I wouldn’t be surprised if it’s the mark of some glassmaker or distributor located in Asia. But don’t quote me! Perhaps someone who has more info on it will land on this site, and let us know!
      Thanks for the post,

  9. DoRi Miles says:


  10. Seth Miller says:

    Found a beer bottle marked “O B Co.” Which according to this was made by Ohio Glass Co from 1904 to 1905. That’s hard to believe, the bottle is dark amber is looks flawless. I cannot believe it is that old. The bottle is from J.F Wiessner & sons brewing Co Baltimore. MD.

    • David says:

      Seth, yes, your bottle is that old. I checked out an article on the brewery, and according to this webpage, the Wiessner brewery started in 1863 and was in business until 1920 when they closed because of Prohibition.
      Also, I might add that many bottles, even if they were dug, can look almost the same as they did when they were made, depending on soil conditions and the glass formula. Many will be stained from being buried for many years and being in long contact with soil moisture, but others, for some reason, can be in great condition. I’ve noticed that some “black glass” (very dark amber) bottles don’t have much staining even if they are over a century old, so perhaps the exact glass batch formula causes the glass to resist deterioration. Also, many bottles were never buried, but were stored in attics, basements, garages, sheds, closets or whatever, and might still have practically no damage or wear of any kind.
      Take care,

  11. Robin says:

    I read elsewhere…Millville Bottle Works … 1888 …. not 1903.

    • David says:

      Hi Robin,
      As you can see, there is some confusion on the dates Millville Bottle Works was in business. The confusion arises because of a type of repro beer bottle marked “MILLVILLE BOTTLE WORKS 1888” on the front and “THIS BOTTLE NOT TO BE SOLD” on the reverse.
      For a bit of background, T.C. Wheaton Company was founded in Millville, NJ in 1888, specializing in druggist and laboratory ware (glass vials, test tubes etc). In 1903 Millville Bottle Works was founded in the same city, also making pharmaceutical and laboratory ware, glass tubing, breast pumps, funnels, and other chemical and lab-related glassware. In 1926, Wheaton purchased the Millville Bottle Works, thus expanding their business in a big way. Millville was also home to another major bottle producer, Whitall Tatum & Company.
      As time went on, Wheaton specialized increasingly in making many types of reproduction and “fantasy” bottles, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. The bottles lettered “MILLVILLE BOTTLE WORKS 1888” were evidently made by Wheaton sometime in the 1970s, perhaps 1976 according to one source. The “W in a circle”, used by Wheaton after 1946, is marked on the bottom of those bottles. They are meant to mimic the “look” of beer or soda water bottles of the 1880s. The bottles were made in amber, sapphire blue (light cobalt) and dark emerald or forest green (perhaps other colors?).
      Exactly why Wheaton didn’t embossed the bottles with “T. C. Wheaton & Company 1888” seems like a legitimate question. But because these bottles are quite common and appear often on ebay and other internet sites, some collectors naturally assume that Millville Bottle Works began in 1888. More info on Millville Bottle Works can be found in the reference book The Glass Gaffers of New Jersey by Adeline Pepper, published in 1971. In fact, I would recommend that book to all collectors of antique glassware and bottles, especially glass connected with New Jersey, as she gives a lot of interesting background information on many companies in the state.
      Hope this helps!

  12. Jenny Gilbey says:

    I have found a small glass bottle today in the garden. Thanks to your site I can see it is a National Glassworks bottle but am curious as to the date and previous contents. It has the N in a diamond, a line underneath then a number 2. The bottle is about an inch wide and 2 inches high. Any info would be great thx.

  13. Daniel says:

    Hi. I have a largish green bottle with stopper. On the bottom reads made in Italy, with what appears to be a makers mark. The mark could be an I and something else, a elongated U or something else. I can send pics if needed. Any ideas?

    • David says:

      I don’t have much info on bottle makers in Italy. You can email me a pic of the base mark and I can check to see if it is shown in Julian Toulouse’s “Bottle Makers and their Marks” (1971). He listed some marks used by countries outside the United States. If you haven’t already, google “Emhart punt mark database” and see if the mark is listed there. However, if it’s an older trademark it may not be listed.

  14. Barry DeCarli says:

    Hi David, thanks for your thorough response to my query about the P. D. Co. bottle mark. I appreciate all of the info. -Barry

  15. I have a wooden spice chest with 8 glass bottles from Piper Doremus & Company. The bottles are marked on the bottom with “P.D. & Co. N.Y.” So, it seems that not all bottles with that marking would be Parke Davis. I am trying to find information on Piper Doremus, but I am striking out. I’m guessing circa 1895, or so. Thanks in advance for information.

    • David says:

      Hi Barry,
      I have no information on Piper Doremus & Company, other than finding a few brief mentions dredged from a google search which seems to indicate they were in business during the late 1880s and early 1890s. The fact that your bottles are marked with “N.Y.” along with the initials seems to differentiate them clearly from Parke Davis bottles, as Parke Davis & Co was based in Detroit, Michigan and (as far as I know) a city or state location wasn’t marked on the base of bottles made for them. But I appreciate your writing to report this find. I was not aware that any other company used the same set of initials as Parke Davis.
      Many, many different styles, colors and sizes of pharmaceutical bottles are found embossed with “P.D. & CO” on the base, usually accompanied by a mold ID number, and Parke Davis was the largest pharmaceutical company in the United States (and world?) for some time, so their output of medicines were vast.
      Best regards,

  16. Alex Hartman says:

    I have a couple of aqua crown top bottles that say “Mendota Bottling Co.” and an M embossed on the bottom, are these bottles uncommon?

    • David says:

      Alex, I have no idea. Tens of thousands of different crown-top soda bottles were made for gobs of bottling companies all around the United States, and most of those kinds of bottles have the most interest (and highest collector value) to collectors in the local area or city/state. I am not familiar with that particular bottling company.

  17. Guy Prentice says:

    As an archeologist, I record maker’s marks I find on archeological sites. I found a broken bottle with the “R-in-Sun” maker’s mark on the base that also bore the notations “DES. PAT.” to the left of the sunburst and to the right of the sunburst the numbers “94231.” This design patent was granted by the U.S. Patent Office on January 1, 1935 to an application submitted by Glenn A. Mengle on July 18, 1934. Hope that bit of info helps. Have you learned anything more regarding the manufacturer who used the “R-and-Sun” mark?

    • David says:

      Hello Guy,
      I really don’t have any more info on the “R inside a Sun” mark. Your information led me to find a few brief references to Glenn A. Mengle online, and it appears he had some connections with Brockway Glass Company, of Brockway, Pennsylvania. So, perhaps the mark was used by them, or maybe the mark stands for a distributor, wholesaler or other company that had dealings with Brockway. No solid evidence so far, but at least this might be a good lead! Thank you for your post.
      Take care, David

    • Carol says:

      Guy, if it is of any value, the bottle probably held furniture polish (trade marked in 1915). I searched on Wizard Inc.mentioned in the patent file, and found some links for Wizard Products Co. In the early 1900s they made furniture polish, a triangular mop, a glass (wooden handled) rolling pin (embossed with co. name on end), and “ironing wax” and “fire-extinguishing compound”.
      I have asked our Bottle Research Group (SHA website on Historic Bottles) about the base mark. I assume it is like this bottle I found on Etsy?

  18. Nita Callahan w says:

    Glass bottle 6 raised ribblets on each side marks on the bottom R G s in a circle. V

  19. gail miles says:

    I have a small bottle with a key shape underneath ?? can anyone advise
    Gail Miles

  20. Salina says:

    Hi, great site, very informative 😀 Did anyone ever find a manufacturer for the hammer/pick sig on the jagermiester bottle? I have a salt glazed stoneware pot with lid bearing the same mark, it is driving me nuts not knowing.knowing.

    • David says:

      Hi Salina,
      I’ve had that mark posted on my site for probably 2 years or more, and haven’t heard the slightest peep with any info for what it stands for. I’m assuming it stands for a glass company in Germany or somewhere in Europe. The mark is certainly relatively recent (probably in use since the 1980s or 1990s?) I have doubts if it could be related to the mark you see on a salt-glazed stoneware pot, since these are two separate mediums (materials) but perhaps there is a connection. Maybe someone will see this discussion and comment on it. Information, anyone? Thanks for writing,

  21. Pingback: Artifact Focus: Milk Bottle | McGrath Farm Site Archaeology

  22. Jeanette says:

    I have found a M in a diamond embossed jar. It is a small milk glass jar with a screw top lid that I dug out of a an old dump in my yard in Pennsylvania. Other bottles from this dump date from around the 1890’s to 1914. The jar had a rusted metal lid on it that crumbled away as I pulled it out, revealing a whitish cream paste inside, which makes me think this is a cosmetic cream like PONDS which came in milk glass later on. the M in the Diamond is centered on the base with the number 103 under it. There are 4 distinct embossed lines (more like elongated dots) at the outer rim of the base like four compass points. The jar has side mold seams that end at seams on the heel (above a cop-bottom), and the shoulder. The rim appears to not have been ground.

    • David says:

      Thank you Jeanette for the information. This is still a mark that seems unknown. I don’t know if the mark on your milk glass jar is related to the “M in a diamond” mark as seen on other (clear) glass bottles and eyecups.
      Best regards,

    • David says:

      Hi Jeanette,
      It’s been over 4 months since your post, but I want to post a follow-up here. I have recently rewritten my entry on “M in a diamond” and have found the source of the mark, at least as seen on certain items of the late 1800s to early 1900s. I’m not positive if the mark on your milkglass jar is related, but it may be: Used by the John M. Maris Company. Best regards,

  23. Yogi Bear says:

    I know my bottle is around 1900 or so, as it’s a tooled crown, and I know that it is a Grand Rapids Brewing Co. bottle, but I do not know what the “203 / P” on the base means? Could the 203 be some sort of mold? And the P… could that be like what s often seen on the base of milks– the letter being the first letter of the dairy (or in this case brewery) owner’s last name? I know I’ve commented with several questions, but I’m curious on mine. Here is an image of the base of my bottle, which I pulled out of the Muskegon River during the clean-up this year:;656098&filename=Muskegon%20River%20Clean-up%20finds%20009.JPG
    It is blurry, for which I apologize.

  24. Rick says:

    Hello David
    A great site! I am the last member of the family (Grandfather A.F.Reed) to work for Reed Glass in Rochester; NY. Not too much in print these days. Was there at shut down in 1956. Videoed the destruction of the old plant, including dynamiting the silos years later when Leone was running it. I am lucky enough to have some ware with the company “L” on the bottom.
    Good luck, and nice work.

  25. Henry Little says:

    Just want to say that this is a great website..Thanks!

  26. Toni Moriarty says:

    Hi I have an aqua colored canning jar-bottle which reads RED( superimposed over a key)MASON’S PATENT NOV. 30th 1858. On the bottom of the bottle are the symbols XXII I measured the bottle and it is 64 oz.(Could you identify this for me?

    • David says:

      Hi Toni,
      You have an example of one of several types of fruit jars made by Giles Clough Glass Company (c.1896-1898) or it’s successor Redkey Glass Company (1898-c.1908), located in Redkey, Indiana. Yours would be the 1/2 gallon size. Dates of operation info is from The Fruit Jar Works, Volume 1, page 183, by Alice Creswick, 1995.
      Hope this helps!

  27. Karen Brown says:

    David–Thank you so much for all the details. As you can tell, I”m rather new to this tho I have been collecting glass since I was a kid (1970). I will keep in touch and now on to your other response. I really appreciate your help.

  28. clay says:

    Hi there i recently found a Bromoseltzer emerson co. Toront ont. Bottle while metal detecting, it has the number 2 on the underside. and if the seam goes over the lip of the top it is post 1900???

    • David says:

      Hello Clay,
      This is one of the Bromo-Seltzer bottle types that were sold/distributed primarily in Canada. Emerson Drug Company had a “branch” location in Toronto, besides the main business headquarters located in Baltimore MD.
      The number “2” is a mold number, and can give no information on age. If the vertical mold seams go completely up to (and/or over) the top of the lip, the bottle is indeed machine-made. (If the seams ‘fade out’ before reaching the top, the bottle was handmade). However, regardless of what some books and websites may imply, there was NOT a quick, clear-cut changeover from handblown to machine-made bottles. The first fully automatic bottle machine (ABM) was not in operation until 1903, invented by Michael J. Owens. For a period of quite a number of years after 1903 there was a gradual transition to machine-made production of bottles. In general, the more prosperous glass companies switched over to the new methods more rapidly than some of the smaller, less financially positioned, less-well known glass bottle producers. Some hand-blown bottles were produced as late as the 1920s, even 1930s in some instances. To state “post 1900” is a greatly over-simplified generalization. That date range is used to classify ebay bottle auctions, but is not strictly accurate.
      All that can be said is that your bottle definitely dates after 1903, but more likely was made sometime after c.1910. Without seeing the exact style, it would be hard to make a guess on age.

      Best regards,

  29. Karen Brown says:

    I have a clear-glass bottle that looks like an old medicinal bottle. At the bottom of the neck, it reads: 3iv. The characters are all the same size. The “3” almost looks like a cursive capital “Z” or an overstrike with a top of the “3” part of the completed “3”. Thank you for your assist on this.

    • David says:

      Hi Karen,
      The weird-looking “3” (with an extra angled stroke or “z” on the top) is a symbol meaning “ounce”, or more accurately, “apothecary troy ounce”. This symbol was frequently placed on glass druggist/pharmacy (prescription) bottles, and seems to be especially common on the upper face area of “generic” clear glass bottles of the circa 1900-1940 era. (I will assume your bottle dates from that period, but it could be more recent). The bottles were usually used to contain liquids, such as cough syrup and other liquid prescription medicines. I believe the symbol is still used on some druggist bottles even up to the present day.
      The symbol is followed by the number of ounces (in lower-case Roman numerals), for instance 3iii equals “3 troy ounces”, 3iv equals “4 troy ounces”. Btw, 12 troy ounces equal one troy pound (not 16 ounces as in the avoirdupois ounce which is in more standard use in the US). Much more detailed information on the apothecaries’ system of weights and measures can be found on a page from Wikipedia, here: Apothecaries system of weights and measures.

      I hope this will be of help,

      • Roger Ritter says:

        David: I believe you’ve just solved a mystery for me. A couple of weeks ago, I found a clear glass pint bottle featuring the “weird-looking” 3 and a smaller xvi next to it. The bottle has a rusted, but still intact metal snap cap. On the base, (which is oval) is a number 3 followed by a square with an O or zero in it, and then a 5. I found it not far from an old hunting camp built in 1925. Because it was a hunting camp, I thought surely it must have contained alcohol. I am going to place the metal cap in a reverse electrolysis solution to see if some of the rust can safely be removed. If it was cough syrup, it likely had alcohol it. (for those cold, damp days on the hunting trail) –Roger Ritter

        • David says:

          Hi Roger,
          Glad to hear you found my site to be useful! There’s no telling what may have been in the bottle, but it could have been some type of medicine, or an alcoholic-based liquid of some sort. The bottle might have been re-used (re-filled) for use on a hunting trip, so perhaps not with the original contents. Of course, the “O in a square” shows it was made by Owens Bottle Company, and likely dates sometime between 1911 and 1929. Thanks for writing~


  30. Karin says:

    We found a bottle with what looks like an 8 or a B in a circle/oval shape with two small triangles, one above and one below the circle/ oval. Anyone have any ideas what this is? It looks to be a whiskey bottle(?)

  31. glb7757 says:

    Hi, I have a coke bottle ,property of Coca-Cola bottling co. from Colorado springs, pueblo marked with a plain embossed W in center bottom..I think it stands for works, but can’t determine where the bottling co. was. It was a design patent pending,and design being like that of bottles in other Colorado bottles I’ve seen from Denver and Salida.Does anyone know anything about these bottles?

  32. Hilary says:

    Hi Jaime
    Sorry don’t know about that bottle, but when I do some research into mine, I will keep a look out 🙂

  33. jaime hobbs says:

    I found a bottle with the word NOXON down the side and on the bottom. clear glass. Haven’t found anything online to say where it was from. Any ideas??

    • David says:

      Hi Jaime,
      I’m sure it is referring the same “NOXON” brand metal polish, a product still sold today, but no doubt an older style container. I really don’t know anything about your bottle or how old it is. I saw an example of one of the older Noxon bottles on ebay. Just guessing, that one looked like a circa 1960s or 1970s bottle, but if there is no glass makers’ mark, date code or other info on a particular bottle, it is hard to pin down a specific date for one of those bottles.
      Take care, David

  34. julie says:

    I found a dropper bottle with the dropper still intact on the beach…embossed bottom shows the following – flag with the letter p. And words re pat with a letter number combo. Still some gooey liquid inside. Amber color, 5 sides. Have researched for many hours…not a clue. Any help is much appreciated.

    • David says:

      Hi Julie,
      (To readers of this comment section, I answered directly by email). Will recap here:. In a nutshell, this bottle is marked with “RE 19520” and a “P inside a flag” logo. A search of the US patent records, courtesy Google Patents, brings this up:
      The patented invention actually referred to the dropper “mechanism” inside the bottle, not the glass bottle itself.
      This type of bottle was made in large numbers by Owens-Illinois, and probably other glass companies, although this example has no glassmakers’ mark. I don’t know what the “P in a flag” signifies. Perhaps a trademark used by an unidentified drug company? If any readers have more information on this, please let us know!

  35. Mikey says:

    Thank You David ; )


  36. Ken Wall says:

    I have a bottle with “R & C O” , and the number “12” on the bottom. It’s 11-1/2″ tall, but I’m not sure if it is an “export” bottle or not. Any info you can provide is much appreciated.

    Thanks, Ken


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  39. Mikey says:

    I have a bottle that looks like a early purple tabasco bottle, accept it has a ring on the neck 4 3/8 inch tall, M.B./Mfg.Co on the bottom , it has been sold in the past as a tabasco bottle ,but I am sure it is not without new iberia or McIlhenny on it , any ideas ?

    thanks Mikey ; )

    • David says:

      Hello Mikey,
      I really don’t know much about the early Tabasco sauce bottles or any other very similar types that might have been “look-alike” brands. Not sure what the M.B. Mfg. Co might stand for. Perhaps a reader/collector that sees your post might know, and can send in some info for us?
      Thanks for writing!

      • Carol says:

        Shoot, when I saw a link for the marks on my bottle…I got Excited…but then see that you Dont know what they mean/are from. This bottle (same ht as Mikey’s) has a partial paper label…with the end of a word …MPH. Triumph? And below the word, an image of a tomato. So, I thot tomato juice…but my friend thinks its pepper sauce (like Tabasco). The bottle has 1/2″ raised bands above and below the paper label area on the body. I dont remember seeing a Tabasco bottle like that. ??

        • David says:

          Hmmm. Carol, I just don’t know! My guess would be a competitor brand of pepper sauce, or possibly some type of spicy tomato sauce?? Perhaps more online research will uncover the ______MPH brand name / word?!?

          • Carol says:

            I searched some (more than I had Time for)…but no luck. Well, did see several 1950s newspapers that apparently had an ad for a Triumph Tomato Juice (at least that’s what I searching on)…but, I Cant open the paper file (without paying). But that is way too modern for this BIMAL bottle. ?? May never be answered.
            Oh, possibly (long shot) the M B MFG Co mark was used by the Minneapolis Bottle Mfg Co. ??

  40. Thomas Jones says:

    Here’s an interesting summary of the Emerson Drug Co. and Maryland Glass Co. (makers of Bromo-Seltzer bottles). The summary indicates that the Maryland Glass Co. was formed by partners of the Emerson Drug Co. to make its Bromo bottles (not to mention bottles for other companies). Just an FYI.

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