Whitall Tatum & Company (1857-1901)
Whitall Tatum Company (1901-1938)
Armstrong Cork Corporation (1938-1969)
Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation (1969-1983) (last production of insulators was in 1978)
The first glass factory in Millville was built in 1806 on the banks of the Maurice River by James Lee along with several other men. Thereafter the factory went through a puzzling succession of ownerships, including Gideon Scull (by 1814); Nathaniel Solomon; and Burgin, Wood & Bodine.
In 1838, at which time the glassworks was then known as the “Phoenix Glass Works”, Captain John M. Whitall entered the business in partnership with G.M.Haverstick and William Scattergood. Shortly afterward, the firm name became Scattergood & Whitall after the retirement of Haverstick. Franklin Whitall, John’s brother, then joined the firm in 1845. In 1848 the name of the firm became “Whitall, Brother & Company” after Edward Tatum became involved. In 1857 the name was again changed to “Whitall Tatum & Company”, and finally in 1901, to “Whitall Tatum Company” which was the name used until 1938 when the works were bought by Armstrong.
There were two locations used by Whitall Tatum, first the original site (upper works) located in Millville proper, and later the “lower works” in South Millville (formerly known as Schetterville). Eventually the South Millville site would become the center of activity for the glassworks.
Whitall Tatum produced very large quantities of bottles and fruit jars throughout much of the mid- and late 19th century. Pharmacy, druggist, barber, perfume, chemical and other types of bottles in various colors and styles were produced, and some of them are now avidly sought by antique bottle collectors.
W-T is especially well-known for the production of tremendous quantities of prescription bottles, blown for hundreds of local druggists/pharmacies across the country, embossed with their names and addresses using interchangeable slug plates inserted into the mold. Most of those types of druggist bottles marked “W.T. & Co.” on the base generally date from approximately 1875 to around 1901, and are most frequently found in a good-quality clear (colorless) glass. Less commonly-seen are examples found in a beautiful rich teal green glass, as well as cobalt blue.
After the firm name was changed to “Whitall Tatum Company” in 1901, the marking on bottle molds was changed slightly to “W.T.CO.” That marking is estimated to have been in use from about 1901 to approximately 1924, although I am sure there was an overlap of a few years when the new mark was being phased in and the “old” mark was removed/re-tooled on molds already in use.
Many of their pharmacy bottles have a letter or letters embossed (along with the “W.T.CO”) on the base which were typically mold identification marks (not date codes).
Note: some of these earlier clear glass bottles may turn a pale amethyst color if subjected to long exposure to sunlight. However practically all “W T & CO” or “W T CO” marked prescription bottles found in a very dark purple color have been irradiated (color-altered) and were originally manufactured in “clear” (colorless) or near-clear glass. See this page on Artificially Purpled Glass. (Confusingly, many Whitall Tatum telegraph insulators, especially the “WHITALL TATUM CO No. 1” style made during the 1920s, are found in naturally-occurring light to medium purple shades.)
Whitall Tatum didn’t enter the insulator manufacturing market until 1922, very soon after Brookfield Glass Company had closed it’s doors the previous year. However, W-T made up for lost time by producing millions of insulators during the ensuing years. No doubt they supplied insulators to many firms (especially in the Eastern states, but over the entire country as well) that had previously purchased from Brookfield.
“W over T inside inverted Triangle” mark (c. 1924 – c. 1949??)
In the 1900s and on into the 1920s and 1930s Whitall Tatum continued to produce large quantities of bottles of many types, sizes, and colors. W-T manufactured bottles that were sold and used by a large number and variety of product manufacturers, especially those making and packaging “brand name” medicines, remedies, cleaning products, flavorings, chemicals, cosmetics, lotions, etc. Large numbers of amber LYSOL bottles bear this triangle mark.
Many of these bottles, along with many glass electrical insulators, are found with a “W and T inside an inverted triangle” trademark (as shown in photo here, embossed on the side of a CD 154 “Whitall Tatum Co. No 1” insulator). The “W and T” triangle, if present on bottles, is usually embossed on the very base. That trademark is generally believed to date beginning about 1924, and appears on machine-made containers, not mouth-blown bottles. “U.S.A.” or “MADE IN U.S.A.” may or may not be embossed along with the mark. There is disagreement on how long the “W over T inside triangle” mark continued to be embossed on containers, some stating the triangle mark was used on bottles up to 1969, which I doubt.
Whitall Tatum was purchased by Armstrong Cork Company in 1938. Armstrong had long used an “A in a circle” as a trademark. It is likely there was a gradual changeover on bottle and jar molds starting around 1938, but that transition probably occurred over several years time. Realizing that a large number of molds were in use, I would suspect it took a while for all of them to be re-tooled. And some of them may have been allowed to ‘wear out’, to then be replaced with newer molds bearing the “A in a circle” trademark.
From research done on Whitall Tatum insulators, (by collector and researcher Richard Wentzel) as discussed on page 138 of the reference book “Insulators: A History and Guide to North American Glass Pintype Insulators” (McDougald & McDougald, 1990), he indicates that the “A in a circle” was apparently first placed on their insulator molds about 1941 (three years after Armstrong took over), and, meanwhile, the WT in a triangle mark was phased out gradually, over a period of quite a few years, from approximately 1941 to 1949, ON THEIR INSULATORS.
I do NOT know if the bottles followed that same timeline!! However, I find it very hard to believe that they would have continued to use the WT triangle mark all the way up to 1969 (when Armstrong was purchased by Kerr), as stated in some sources. I have never seen any bottles with the WT mark that appear to date after the 1940s, or maybe the early 1950s at the latest.
If anyone has information that sheds light on when the last bottles were made bearing the “WT inside a triangle” mark, please advise! The main source that implies that the WT in a triangle mark was still in use as late as 1964 was a chart printed by Owens-Illinois, as mentioned by Bill Lockhart in his article, here: https://sha.org/bottle/pdffiles/ArmstrongCork.pdfH
He was referring to a chart copied in an archaeology report by Dale Berge in 1980.
( https://openlibrary.org/books/OL25302802M/Simpson_Springs_Station ) which can be read online (page 83 on that pdf file).
That chart was published by Owens-Illinois in 1964. I noticed on that same chart there is also another instance of a mark that was presumably no longer in use by 1964……. the “LM inside an oval”, by Latchford-Marble Glass Company, which was reportedly discontinued in 1957 (in fact, the name of that glass company had been changed to Latchford Glass Company).
I think Owens-Illinois was either somewhat slack about making sure their chart was up-to-date, or they merely wanted to include certain well-known marks that might still be encountered on relatively-recent glass containers made within the last decade or two of the publication of that chart.
Armstrong Cork Corporation purchased Whitall-Tatum in 1938 (with insulator production continuing at a remarkable rate, and the existing molds being re-engraved with the ARMSTRONG name between 1946 and 1949), and finally Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation took over ownership of the plant in April of 1969. Many of the insulators continued to carry the “Armstrong” embossing, until about 1973, by which time all carried the “KERR” embossing.
With the rapidly decreasing demand for glass insulators, production at the Kerr plant continued to diminish as the 1970s wore on. From information supplied to me by Richard Wentzel, the last glass insulators made at the Millville plant were produced in late 1975 or early 1976. Soon afterward, the insulator molds and equipment were moved to the Kerr Glass plant located in Dunkirk, Indiana. (The very last “KERR” embossed insulators made at Dunkirk are evidently the ones marked with 1978 date codes, and no Kerr insulators are known with a more recent year date code on them). Those insulators made in 1978 are probably the most recently made authentic small to medium-sized PINTYPE glass insulators produced within the United States.
Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation sold the Millville manufacturing facility in 1983, along with 3 other plants, to the American National Can Company. Ball-Foster took control of the factory in 1995, and in 1999, after 193 years of nearly continuous glass production, the factory was shut down permanently.
An update (posted 2006): I’ve received word that the former Lower Works site is reportedly a self-storage facility, and the buildings that once housed WT’s glass furnaces have been demolished. A sad ending indeed for one of America’s greatest glass manufacturing enterprises. If anyone has more recent information on this property, please contact me! Thank you!
For a more comprehensive article on the background history and marks used by Whitall Tatum, check out this article here:
Note: for a webpage on this site with an extensive list of glass insulator manufacturers, please click here.
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For some more info on the Kerr Glass Manufacturing Corporation, see that article here.
(Photograph near top of page: Antique druggist bottle marked “W T & CO” on the bottom in teal green glass, from the 1880s, and two CD 154 style Whitall Tatum No. 1 telephone/telegraph line insulators, one in light peach, the other in medium purple . Both insulators date from the 1920s).
[Sources of info: Richard Wentzel (from his article in McDougald, 1990, and personal communications); also, Adeline Pepper- The Glass Gaffers of New Jersey( 1971); other sources].