Hi!  My name is David Whitten.   I’m interested in the general history of the glass manufacturing industry in the United States, but especially within the sphere of container glass, electrical insulators and tableware (both pressed and blown).

Bottles, jars, jugs and containers of all types, fruit jars,  glass insulators,  fishing net floats,  EAPG (Early American Pattern Glass),  Depression Glass,  antique children’s mugs,  and other items are some of the forms of glass I enjoy learning more about.   There is alot of great information already available on the web, as well as in books and magazines, but I’m trying to gather some of the very best, basic info together onto this site, in particular concentrating on identification marks found on bottles, insulators and tableware.  I’m also in the process of adding various articles to this site, discussing different types of glass and glass items. This site is a “work in progress” started back in 2004.

The glassmaking industry in the US is a huge field that dates back to the 1600s, and covers a vast array of items and applications,  including both handmade and machine-made glass.

According to historian Rhea Mansfield Knittle (Early American Glass, 1927), one of the earliest glass manufacturers in the United States (not counting the unsuccessful attempts at Jamestown in 1607 and 1621) who may have produced considerable quantities of glassware and actually met with some degree of success, was Johannes Smedes (or Jan Smedes), who operated an establishment — probably making bottles for the most part–  sometime in the period of 1654-1664 at New Amsterdam (now known as New York City) .

What is glass?

 Note: Although some collectors and researchers may consider this to be an “obvious” question,  it’s not quite as simple as that.  For a brief,  basic discussion on glass (especially concerning the most common type of glass used for containers and tableware), check out my webpage here: What is Glass?

Every glass object, even the most lowly, commonplace glass bottle,  has a story behind it, although all of the precise details may never be known.   Where was it made?   What was the name of the company or factory where it was produced?  How old is it?   Is it handmade?   Was it mass-produced by machine methods?  What type of glass is it made of? What elements/chemicals were included in the glass “recipe”?   Why is it a certain color?  If it’s  an older, hand-blown bottle, who was the glassblower who fashioned it?   Who was the last person who used it and handled it before it came into your possession? Where was the physical location of the sand supply that eventually was turned into the glass piece that you hold in your hand?   Is it American-made, or a piece that was produced outside the United States?   Can the company / maker be identified by the markings on it?   What do the markings mean?

All of these questions might come to mind to the collector,  or layman,  historian,  archaeologist,  or casual hobbyist……….. and my site attempts to answer, in at least some cases if possible, a couple of these questions: Where, and approximately when,  perhaps, was this piece of glass made?   Five of the webpages within this site list glass manufacturers’ identification marks (alphabetically listed) found on container glass (bottles, jars, flasks, etc) and in some cases on other types of glassware.   A few examples of marks would be “I G CO” , “OWENS”, “B in a circle” , “K in a hexagon” and “N in a square”. Please click here which will take you to the first page with more introductory information and explanatory comments: GLASS BOTTLE MARKS.

On this site are a number of individual webpages with basic information on some of the  glass factories that operated in the United States. To read any of the “glass manufacturer profiles” I have written (so far), and other articles pertaining to glass, please look along the right-hand side of any page for the list of Glass Manufacturer Profiles, and click on any link in that list.  I hope to add more information as time and energy permits!

One page in particular within this site is a list of glass factories that manufactured, or are believed to have produced, glass electrical insulators for telegraph, telephone and/or power lines. Although mainly listing U.S. factories, a few Canadian and Mexican factories are listed also.  Click here  to go directly to that page.  If you have additional information, please contact me (at the email address listed at the very bottom of any page on this site)  as I’m continually looking for the most accurate data available on these companies.  Sources of some of the information is included after each entry if I have it available.  This is an ongoing project, started in 2004,  and I’d appreciate any additions, corrections, or suggestions you may have!

Some of the information on glass insulators is from research originally compiled by N. R. Woodward, creator and administrator of the “CD” (Consolidated Design) numbering system now used worldwide by collectors for identifying and cataloging insulators.  A portion of the info in this site pertaining to insulator manufacturers  is drawn from various articles in the classic 2-volume reference book “INSULATORS: A HISTORY AND GUIDE TO NORTH AMERICAN GLASS PINTYPE INSULATORS ” by John & Carol McDougald (published in 1990).

Hemi Mickey Mouse Insulator The glass insulator pictured on the right, an aquamarine CD 257 “Mickey Mouse”, is a type made for electric power lines, and was made by the Hemingray Glass Company at their factory that operated in Muncie, Indiana,  and dates between 1900 and 1920.

I hope this site will be a help in your quest to discover more information concerning the wide world of glass manufacturing. Please be sure to bookmark this site, and return often!

Thank you!



69 Responses to Welcome~

  1. Ewart says:

    Several years ago, my father found a similar bottle (clear glass) with the D&M marking and the number 13917, on a beach on the Island of Dominica in the Caribbean. 20″ tall and 5.5″ in diameter at the base.

    • David says:

      Thanks Ewart! [Ewart's post is in reply to query about D&M bottle posted by "Charlie" on November 14, 2013, posted farther down on this page].

  2. Jerry says:

    I’ve just started collecting vintage jars & don’t know a lot about them. I’ve got some old blue numbered Ball Perfect Mason Jars & I’m wondering if the ones that have a line with the number is suppose to be read with the line over the number or below it. Thanks.

    • David says:

      Hi Jerry, the number is read with the line underneath it. An underline is usually seen with a “6″ or a “9″ mold number to clarify which numeral is meant, since the number might otherwise be read upside down. Although it is sometimes obvious which number is meant, there are a number of different ways in which they were drawn, occasionally leading to some confusion.

  3. Cindy Plummer says:

    I have a Biltmore Dairy half pint milk bottle marked Duraglas from 1953. I’m trying to determine what plant it came from. The plant code is 17. Can you tell me where this plant was or is? Thank you.

    • David says:

      Cindy, Owens-Illinois plant #17 was located at Clarion, Pennsylvania. Originally Berney-Bond Glass Company, later acquired by Owens-Illinois, operated as plant #17 from circa 1930, up til it’s closing in July 2010!

  4. cynthia weed says:

    Are the mid-eighteenth century Cheesborough Vaseline bottles valuable?

    • David says:

      Hi Cynthia,
      No Vaseline jars were ever made in the eighteenth century (1701-1800), but I’m assuming you meant the 19th century (1801-1900). The earliest type of marked Vaseline jars (the cork-top style, as shown on the far left in my photo of clear jars on my webpage about Vaseline jars) were probably introduced in the late 1870s or sometime in the 1880s, although no one knows exactly when. They are common enough to have a relatively low value to bottle collectors, perhaps 2 to 5 dollars in excellent condition. However, I am not really an appraisal site, so I can’t vouch for that value estimate. A keyword search on ebay over several months’ time period may yield better info on the prices they actually sell for.
      Best regards, David

  5. Carlena-OcoeeFL says:

    Hello David….
    I am completely amazed to of happened upon your “very informative” website on the Glass Mfg. History. In an added note to your statement under AVON BOTTLES…..

    “There may have been other glass manufacturers involved in the production of Avon glassware, although I am not sure of their identities, if so. If you have pertinent information in that regard, please feel free to contact me!”.

    …… I can confirm to you that several AVON Decanters were manufactured by Owen-Illinois, especially at the Huntington, WVa. plant. My Mom-in-Law worked for the Huntington, WVa. plant for about 25 years up until they closed the plant (approx. 1993/1994). We have a pair of original AVON Dueling Pistol 1760 decanters ( glass only not the added silver plastic decor or bottle caps). One has on the Butt of the pistol “AVON 5″ and the other “AVON 10″. From what I’ve found in research these decanters were marketed by AVON, around 1973 with Deep Woods After Shave.

    Can you give us any idea what these glass factory blanks could be worth??? I can send pictures also if you would like, just let me know.

    • David says:

      Thanks Carlena, I appreciate your information. Owens-Illinois seems to have made just about every kind of bottle, jar, jug or flask imaginable (as well as lots of other kinds of glass items), so this would not come as much of a surprise. I have no idea on “value” of such items. I am sure they would have some value to “serious’ collectors of Avon bottles and memorabilia, but I don’t know enough about them to make a judgment call on their average market “worth”. What color is the glass on these bottles? Do you know what glass colors Owens-Illinois utilized for the Avons they made? If you wish, you can send pics to my email address (listed at the bottom right corner of any page on this site).
      Best regards, David

  6. Eleanor Boston says:

    I have a green glass jar or vase shape – approx. 5″ diameter at base and 9″ high, 2″ at neck. It has a five thin spirals of glass from the top which end with the seal. This is a head and shoulders with a face on it and a line around the head depicting hair. The seal aperture is about 1″ across. I would appreciate any knowledge of this jar please from anyone. Many thanks, Eleanor (UK)

  7. Xanna says:

    Hi David, I have the rarest Avon bottle to date. The tan top,Yellow taxi. The production was stopped due to the mistake of the style and color not matching the picture on the box. The production was stopped after only a handful was made. The new taxi would have a black top now matching the box. The style of the top would also be changed. The black top taxi would be produced in large numbers marked 41338 or 41397 or 41369 all posted on the net. This mistake of the tan top and style would become the least produced in number Avon bottle to date. The bottle 42418, is this the 18th one made in the production?

  8. Kim Fernandez Hunter says:

    Have several clear glass bottles 9 (I) 70.. With a 26 on it at the bottom

  9. steve harford says:

    hi david:
    i found an old hazel atlas jar. it has the little a inside the large H stamped in the bottom. it is tear drop shaped and appears to have 5383 above the ha. i have looked for the jar and the # but cannot seam to find anything about it. its a really neat shape and im curious about it. any help would be greatly appreciated. thanks Steve Harford NY

    • David says:

      Hi Steve, there are a very few known Hazel-Atlas catalogs still in existence picturing many of their bottles and jars from the early 20th century, but I don’t have access to them.
      Hazel Atlas made thousands of different types of bottles, jugs, jars, etc over many decades. Many of H-A’s containers bear four-digit numbers on the bottom which are design or inventory numbers assigned to a particular shape or size. I don’t know when the “5383″ style jar was made.

  10. Erica says:

    I am trying to find out who the manufacturer of glassware with the hallmark “T” with a star around it is. I have some codd bottles that were unearthed in Scotland with this hallmark and nothing else. Please, if anyone has any information I would love to know!

    • David says:

      Erica, I’m posting your query here. I am guessing the “T inside a star” might be he trademark of a glass company that operated sometime in the late 19th, into the early 20th century in Great Britain (although I do not know), or it might stand for a soda water company or distributor (??). Maybe someone who specializes in collecting Codd-style beverage bottles will have more information for you.

    • bo says:

      Try this site and links page. Maybe be a good resource for information or contacts. http://www.brightonbottles.com/

      • David says:

        Hi, I’m posting your link here, for bottle collectors in Great Britain or elsewhere who might be looking for info on bottles from Brighton. Thanks for sharing…..

  11. Alex says:

    I have a ABGA (in cursive script) mason perfect made in the U.S.A however the glass lid has abca at the four corners of a cross ? Is this (as I think), a 1920s jar? and can you tell me anything else about it thanks.

    • David says:

      According to information in the reference book “The Fruit Jar Works, Volume II” (1987, by Alice M. Creswick and Stephen B. Creswick), on page 1, three variants of the ABGA jars are listed and illustrated. These jars are described as having been made by both Hazel-Atlas Glass Company and Ball Bros Glass Company FOR the Anglo-Belge Glass Association of London, England. “Circa 1910 and later”. Your particular jar variant is listed as Jar #5 (also listed as such in the accompanying “Redbook” price guide for jars). This is the only information I can provide. Perhaps a reader might know more about them.

  12. troy says:

    I recently purchased an E O Brody piece (M6000) but the “Y” is upside down! Does this indicate a year of manufacture? how many others have this anomaly ? any other info regarding this would be of great help.


    • David says:

      Troy, I strongly doubt that any markings on the E O Brody glass items are actual year date codes. However, perhaps a reader out there has more info on these markings. Maybe we’ll get lucky, and a former worker who made this glass can ‘clue us in’ on the meanings of the marks. I assume the “M6000″ is a code number for that particular style vase or bowl.
      Best regards, David

  13. Sage Hennessey says:

    Hi David,

    I have a glass bottle with a circular base bottom. The bottom has “47″ on it, with two rings of circles around it almost like a target. Do you have any idea what company may have made this? I found it on a beach in Delaware.

    • David says:

      Hi Sage,
      The bottle base sounds like that seen on alot of the typical glass non-returnable soda bottles produced in the 1970s-2000s era, especially on alot of emerald green bottles that once held such sodas as Sprite, 7-up and other lemon-lime brands. Many of them are marked on the bottom with a mold number or other numbers placed in the center of concentric raised lines. Large numbers of those bottles were made by Owens-Illinois (I inside an O); Brockway Glass Company (B in a circle); Anchor Glass Container Corporation (anchor symbol); Glenshaw Glass Company (G in a square); Liberty Glass Company (L G) and other glass companies. Would there be a small emblem or logo along the outer rim of the lower “heel” area of the bottle which may signify glassmaker? Sometimes the glassmaker can be identified by studying the heel closely……however many times the raised embossing is very faint. The base shards are often found by “sea glass” collectors beachcombing along the shores of lakes, rivers and oceans. Hope this helps! David

  14. Scott says:

    Hi any idea what these numbers stand for? Half gallon marked bottle. Dura glass with 6 on the left 4 on the right and 11 on the bottom do u have an email so I can send pictures

  15. HI David,
    Thank you for contacting me with this information. I also checked out the google patent site. It was interesting to read. I am still trying to find more information about what product was put in the bottle after it was manufactured. It’s pretty interesting. Thanks again.

    • David says:

      Hi Michele, from the design of the bottle I would assume it was intended to be a cologne or perfume bottle. Perhaps someone will run across an example with the original label still affixed! Thanks for your reply~

  16. Hi David, I found a bottle from Maryland Glass Company. Patent number d142616. I am curious about what might have been in the bottle. I found it in the basement of an old pharmacy.

  17. Charlie says:

    David I have a long neck bottle with the mark D&M on the bottom, I found it in Maine. Any ideas?

  18. Karleen Phillips says:

    I have a floral pot with E. O. Brody A-1431. There is also a sticker the botton the says design original y E. O. Brody, Cleveland,, Ohio Made in Japan. This is probably a mass produced floral vase. Does the A-1431 mean there were 1, 431 of these made?

    • David says:

      Hi Karleen,
      No. I’m not sure if you are speaking of a ceramic vase, or a glass vase?? In any case, although the number A-1431 does sound like it might be a “serial number” or one in a series of unique numbers applied to a product (similar to a “limited edition” serial number), this is not the case. It’s merely a catalog, style, or inventory number assigned to that specific vase design. I’m quite sure that all examples of that particular EXACT type of vase will carry the same number.

  19. Nick says:

    I have a small blue jar and on the bottom is a triangle inside a triangle. About same size as a Vicks vapor rub jar. Any ideas?

    • David says:

      Hi Nick,
      You have one of the earlier versions of the Vicks Vaporub salve jars. Don’t know the years the type with the triangles was made, but my guess would be 1920s-1940s era. Best regards,

  20. james says:

    I have a bottle I found in Atlanta Georgia I know its a machine botllei can not find any inf on it it is aqua green it is 8 inches tall 5 inches from top says Hagan & Dodd co below that it says red rock below that Atlanta Georgia on very bottom says red rock if any one can help me email me at loganwarrreng@yahoo.com thanks for any help

  21. Paul Evans Pedersen, Jr. says:

    Simply an amazing sight!! Wonderful information! Thanks!!

  22. Janell Bennett says:

    You have a great site here! I have a blue bottle with frosted blue figures of Greek gods. The mark on the bottom looks like “ROAN.” I can’t seem to find it anywhere. It was in my parents house when they passed. They were both in their 90s.Is there a way to send you a picture?

    • David says:

      Hi Janell,
      (To readers): Janell sent me a pic by email (thanks Janell), and I have the marking now pictured on this site under the “DOAN” entry on “Glass Bottle Marks~page one”. Any information on attribution would be appreciated! Thanks!

  23. Jolie says:

    Hello David – I’ve used your site before … LOVE IT! Question, my daughter found a bottle in our river. I’ve determined that it is Owens-Illinois. It is Amber in color and is shaped like a flask with a screw top. It has embossed on the top of the body “FEDERAL LAW PROHIBITS SALE OR RE-USE OF THIS BOTTLE”. It is a half pint. On the bottom it has the diamond with the O and the I in it. The numbers are located next to the logo (not to the right and left as some say they should be). They are as follows:
    0 – 8 (or maybe D – 8?)
    and the OI logo is to the left of these numbers which are lined up in the center of the bottom.

    Can you give me any info on where and when this was manufactured?


    • David says:

      Hi Jolie,
      Alot of the liquor flasks made by Owens-Illinois do not always have mold/date codes that are configured the same way as they usually are on other bottles, especially on soda bottles. I mention this on the Owens-Illinois page on this website. I’m not really sure how to read these codes. However, I am of the opinion (repeat: opinion) that the “47″ is a date code for 1947. The “D-8″ (and other D letter/number combos such as D-126) are often seen on the base of whiskey and other liquor bottles, and I think those numbers relate to distillery information in some way. Sorry, but I don’t have any other information on your bottle. Thanks for writing~

  24. Jen Chadwick says:

    Hi David, great site with loads of info. I was wondering if you could help me. I have a large glass jug, marked 500cl, 70mm, 3, with a N in a circle all on the bottom. It has a lovely shaped handle fully intact. The only info I could find was maybe Obear-Neston? Do you know of any other company worldwide with this mark, as I am actually in Australia. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

    • David says:

      Hello Jen,
      You are right to question whether it could be Obear-Nestor. I can state with confidence that it is NOT an American-made container. The “500cl” and “70mm” markings show it to be a product made (almost certainly) outside the US…… possibly a company in Europe or Asia. The Bucher Emhart Punt marks database Punt Mark Library (this is a pdf file) shows “N in a circle” was used by Nozaki Glass Company, of Japan, but I can’t find any really pertinent info concerning that company online. Unfortunately, I know very little about glass manufacturers in Australia. It is possible it was made there (?) Hopefully someone can put together a fairly complete list of marks from Australia (including recent/modern marks) and post them online. Thanks for your query, and sorry I can’t be of much help.
      Best regards,

      • Jen Chadwick says:

        Thanks so much. The measurements confused me too in relation to US standards.. Mind you, cl measurements haven’t been used for quite some time over here either. Thank you so much for the leads. Will keep searching and if I find any more info will post to you for your database. Cheers.

  25. Susan says:

    Hi David,
    This is a fabulous site! Thank you so much for your hard work and generosity!

  26. Valerie says:

    Hi David, its Valerie now I have a full brown bottle seams on the corner to the top. On the bottom has 2 circles with a diamond in the middle. The circle in the middle end up to 11 or LL. Real hard to tell its been in Grandma’s garage for who know how long.

  27. Lianna says:

    Hi David,
    Just want to thank you for your wonderful site. I volunteer at a Thrift Shop in Malibu and research a wide range of items from couture and fine china to vintage bottles and memorabilia. Guess I love learning new things especially those pertaining to history. I have one of the AB bottles with the connecting AB and have read the page on this mark. I guess these are quite common here in the west. What I can’t figure out is what the “X” stands for at 7 o’clock on the bottom. At 5 o’clock there is the number “5″ which I am going to assume is the year.
    Thanks again and keep up the awesome work you’re doing!!

    • David says:

      Hi Lianna,
      Thanks for your kind comments about the site! Concerning the letter/number pair combination situated directly underneath the AB mark: No one, as far as I know, is absolutely certain what their purpose was. However, I am of the opinion (repeat: opinion) that they are mold and/or “shop” identifiers. Meaning, they identified a particular bottle mold and/or the “shop” (group of several workers assigned to producing bottles from that mold).

      When a number of identical molds were being used simultaneously to produce bottles, each mold carried a different number to identify it. If problems developed with the finished bottles, the defective mold could be quickly pinpointed.

      Many letter and number combinations are found on these bottles. I don’t know if a list of these markings exists on the internet (yet) but it is likely someone, somewhere is currently compiling such a list as we speak! I think there are many dozens (maybe over a hundred?) of letter/number combos that have been seen or recorded. Also……I am quite sure they are NOT date codes. If there is a date code on these bottles, it would be situated on the heel, not the very bottom.

      THANKS for writing!

  28. Jeff Marx says:

    David: Concerning L52- Lamb Glass Co. The L52 is found on more than milk bottles: I have a bottle labeled: “Breakstone’s Sour Cream one pint” with the L52 on the heel.


  29. jim says:

    I have an amber bottle about quart size -looks like an applied top. On bottom is round smooth indentation about an inch in diameter. Around that it says “New Albany Glas Works” (The one S in glass intentional) Can you tell me about when it was made-is it relatively common?

  30. terry says:

    Hello David,
    I went for walk with my dog this morning and happened to find an interesting bottle. Round top, with four curve bottom. Letters on bottom patd, H mark with letter A under middle line, 9 on same line and numbers at bottom 6214 set up as patd
    H with A under middle line 9
    Can you give me any info on this find? Bottle is approx 5-6 inches tall with narrow lightbulb shape on each side-wide on top narrows to bottom with 4 curved bottom.
    thank you Terry

    • David says:

      Hi Terry,
      Your bottle was made by Hazel-Atlas Glass Company; please see my page on Hazel-Atlas. However, I’m not sure from your description what type of bottle it is, or what it might have contained. Can you send me a picture of the bottle (to the email address mentioned at the bottom of the page).
      Thanks for writing,

  31. Greg Jackson says:

    Great site! Just wondering if you add makers marks to the pages when you find or have new ones sent to you? I have a bottle embossed Red River Mfg & Bottling Co. Denison, Tx. Makers mark on the base is a large “R”. I’ve only been able to find a short paragraph about the company, that was taken from a booklet in 1907.

    • David says:

      Hello Greg!
      Yes, sometimes I do add information to the site that has been sent in by readers. I should try to clarify something here, however. Most of the “makers’ marks” listed on this site are marks indicating the glass bottle manufacturer (itself), not the bottling company. I’m not familiar with that company, but am assuming that Red River Manufacturing & Bottling Company was a soda producer, and filled the bottles which were made by a glass company. (Are there any markings along the lower heel of the bottle which would indicate glassmaker?). There have been literally tens of thousands of soda, mineral water, and/or beer bottlers in business in the US for which bottles were made (by a glass manufacturer) with the name of the bottling company (or brewing company, etc) marked on the front. In many of those cases, there will also be a letter (or set of initials) on the base which corresponds to the name of the bottling company. So, in this case, it is not exactly a “makers’ mark” as defined by the average bottle collector, and these types of base markings are not usually listed (I mention this in my “introductory comments” on page one, but I’m sorry to say it is somewhat “buried” in the text!) In any case, I honestly don’t have the time, energy, or knowledge to list all of these bottling company names on this site. Nevertheless, I would like to see a pic of the bottle (I was wondering what style of bottle it would be………”hutch”, “crown-top” etc ) If you wish to, you are welcome to email a pic to davidrussell59 “at” att.net.
      Thanks very much for your post!!

  32. Awesome site, Very useful and helpful resource for sure I greatly Appreciate your hard work!

  33. JK says:

    what do you or your readers know about bottles embossed with “J Wittmann Woodhaven New York”? On the alternate side of the bottle it has a “J” overlapped with a “W”.

    Any information would be great!


    • David says:

      Hi JK,
      I’m not familiar with that bottle, but I would assume that it contained soda, mineral water, beer or ale. There are thousands of different bottle variants known just from the state of New York.
      The exact shape/style of the bottle can give info on approximate date range. If there is no makers’ mark, it won’t be easy to find out exactly what glass company manufactured the bottle. Information on the “J Wittmann” (owner of the bottler or brewery) might be found with a google search. The “J overlapping a W” is the monogram for Wittmann, and does not give any info on glassmaker. If you have a clear pic of the bottle (entire profile) please send it to davidrussell59@att.net. (If any readers of this site have concrete info on the bottle, please submit your comments!) THANKS! David

  34. Ken Bowes says:

    C in a triangle: If it has one of its points pointing up, and all three corners are rounded, it is Consumers Glass from Canada. In print, the solid triangle is to represent a molten gob of glass, and is printed in red..with a white C. I worked there from 1969 to 1973, at the Kipling Avenue facility in west end Toronto. They purchased Dominion Glass while I was with them, and later, with debt problems came into the world of Owens Illinois.